Chapter 2.5.3 General View on Wine – Bordeaux

Hello Everyone !

I’ve been asked to make a short presentation on Bordeaux Region ( Rive Droite et Rive Gauche ) and finally , here it is !

La légende?Vineyards of Bordeaux

The wine regions of Bordeaux are a large number of wine growing areas, differing widely in size and sometimes overlapping, which lie within the overarching wine region of Bordeaux, centred on the city of Bordeaux and covering the whole area of the Girondedepartment of Aquitaine. The Bordeaux region is naturally divided by the Gironde Estuary into a Left Bank area which includes the Médoc and Graves and a Right Bank area which includes the Libournais, Bourg and Blaye. The Médoc is itself divided into Haut-Médoc (the upstream or southern portion) and Bas-Médoc (the downstream or northern portion, often referred to simply as “Médoc”). There are various sub-regions within the Haut-Médoc, including St-Estèphe, Pauillac, St.-Julien and Margaux. Graves includes the sub-regions of Pessac-Léognan and Sauternes (among others), and Sauternes in turn includes the sub-region of Barsac. The Libournais includes the sub-regions of Saint-Émilion and Pomerol (among others). There is an additional wine region of Entre-Deux-Mers, so called because it lies between the Garonne and Dordogne rivers, which combine to form the Gironde.

All of these regions (except the Libournais) have their own appellation and are governed by Appellation d’origine contrôlée laws which dictate the permissible grape varieties, alcohol level, methods of pruning and picking, density of planting and appropriate yields as well as various winemaking techniques. Bordeaux wine labels will usually include the region on the front if all the grapes have been harvested in a specific region and the wine otherwise complies with the AOC requirements. There are about 50 AOCs applicable to the Bordeaux region.

Both red and white Bordeaux wines are almost invariably blended. The permissible grape varieties in red Bordeaux are: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petit Verdot. While wine making styles vary, a general rule of thumb is that the Left Bank is predominately Cabernet Sauvignon based with the Right Bank being more Merlot based. The Graves area produces both red wine (from the grapes previously mentioned) and white wine from the Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon and Muscadelle grapes. The area of Sauternes (including Barsac) is known for its botrytizeddessert wines.

Weinbaugebiete-frankreich-bordeaux

“Claret”

Bordeaux Claret Case

Claret (/ˈklærɨt/ KLARR-ət) is a name primarily used in British English for red Bordeaux wine.

Claret derives from the French clairet, a now uncommon dark rosé, which was the most common wine exported from Bordeaux until the 18th century. The name was anglicised to “claret” as a result of its widespread consumption in England during the period in the 12th–15th centuries that Aquitaine was under the English crown (see below under History). It is a protected name within the European Union, describing a red Bordeaux wine, accepted after the British wine trade demonstrated over 300 years’ usage of the term.

Claret is occasionally used in the United States as a semi-generic label for red wine in the style of the Bordeaux, ideally from the same grapes as are permitted in Bordeaux. The French themselves do not use the term, except for export purposes.

The meaning of “claret” has changed over time to refer to a dry, dark red Bordeaux. It has remained a term associated with the English upper class, and consequently appears on bottles of generic red Bordeaux in an effort to raise its status in the market.

In November 2011, the president of the Union des Maisons de Négoce de Bordeaux, announced an intention to use the term Claret de Bordeaux for wines that are “light and fruity, easy to drink, in the same style as the original claret when it was prized by the English in former centuries”.

Chateau-Haut-Bertinerie-rose-2009--bordeaux-clairet

History

The vine was introduced to the Bordeaux region by the Romans, probably in the mid-1st century, to provide wine for local consumption, and wine production has been continuous in the region since then.

In the 12th century, the popularity of Bordeaux wines in England increased dramatically following the marriage of Henry Plantagenet and Eleanor of Aquitaine. The marriage made the province of Aquitaine English territory, and thenceforth the majority of Bordeaux was exported. At this time, Graves was the principal wine region of Bordeaux, and the principal style was clairet. This accounts for the ubiquity of claret in England. The export of Bordeaux was interrupted by the outbreak of The Hundred Years’ War between France and England in 1337. By the end of the conflict in 1453 France had repossessed the province, thus taking control of wine production in the region.

In the seventeenth century, Dutch traders drained the swampy ground of the Médoc in order that it could be planted with vines, and this gradually surpassed Graves as the most prestigious region of Bordeaux. Malbec was dominant grape here, until the early 19th century, when it was replaced by Cabernet Sauvignon.

In 1855, the châteaux of Bordeaux were classified; this classification remains widely used today.

From 1875-1892 almost all Bordeaux vineyards were ruined by Phylloxera infestations. The region’s wine industry was rescued by grafting native vines on to pest-resistant American rootstock and all Bordeaux vines that survive to this day are a product of this action. This is not to say that all contemporary Bordeaux wines are truly American wines, as rootstock does not affect the production of grapes.

Climate and Geography

The major reason for the success of winemaking in the Bordeaux region is the excellent environment for growing vines. The geological foundation of the region is limestone, leading to a soil structure that is heavy in calcium. The Gironde estuary dominates the regions along with its tributaries, the Garonne and the Dordogne rivers, and together irrigate the land and provide an Atlantic Climate, also known as an oceanic climate, for the region.

These rivers define the main geographical subdivisions of the region:

  • “The right bank”, situated on the right bank of Dordogne, in the northern parts of the region, around the city of Libourne.
  • Entre-deux-mers, French for “between two seas”, the area between the rivers Dordogne and Garonne, in the centre of the region.
  • “The left bank”, situated on the left bank of Garonne, in the west and south of the region, around the city of Bordeaux itself. The left bank is further subdivided into:
    • Graves, the area upstream of the city Bordeaux.
    • Médoc, the area downstream of the city Bordeaux, situated on a peninsula between Gironde and the Atlantic.

In Bordeaux the concept of terroir plays a pivotal role in wine production with the top estates aiming to make terroir driven wines that reflect the place they are from, often from grapes collected from a single vineyard. The soil of Bordeaux is composed of gravel, sandy stone, and clay. The region’s best vineyards are located on the well-drained gravel soils that are frequently found near the Gironde river. An old adage in Bordeaux is the best estates can “see the river” from their vineyard and majority of land that face riverside are occupied by classified estates.

Grapes

Red Bordeaux is generally made from a blend of grapes. Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Malbec and Carménère.[12] Today Malbec and Carménère are rarely used, with Château Clerc Milon, a fifth growth Bordeaux, being one of the few to still retain Carménère vines.

As a very broad generalization, Cabernet Sauvignon (Bordeaux’s second-most planted grape variety) dominates the blend in red wines produced in the Médoc and the rest of the left bank of the Gironde estuary. Typical top-quality Chateaux blends are 70% Cabernet Sauvignon, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Merlot. This is typically referred to as the “Bordeaux Blend.” Merlot (Bordeaux’s most-planted grape variety) and to a lesser extent Cabernet Franc (Third most planted variety) tend to predominate in Saint-Émilion, Pomerol and the other right bank appellations. These Right Bank blends from top-quality Chateaux are typically 70% Merlot, 15% Cabernet Franc & 15% Cabernet Sauvignon.

White Bordeaux is predominantly, and exclusively in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle – Typical blends are usually 80% Sémillon, 20% Sauvignon blanc. As with the reds, white Bordeaux wines are usually blends, most commonly of Sémillon and a smaller proportion of Sauvignon blanc. Other permitted grape varieties are Sauvignon gris, Ugni blanc, Colombard, Merlot blanc, Ondenc and Mauzac.

In the late 1960s Sémillon was the most planted grape in Bordeaux. Since then it has been in constant decline although it still is the most common of Bordeaux’s white grapes. Sauvignon blanc’s popularity on the other hand has been rising, overtaking Ugni blanc as the second most planted white Bordeaux grape in the late 1980s and now being grown in an area more than half the size of that of the lower yielding Sémillon.

Wineries all over the world aspire to making wines in a Bordeaux style. In 1988, a group of American vintners formed The Meritage Association to identify wines made in this way. Although most Meritage wines come from California, there are members of the Meritage Association in 18 states and five other countries, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, Israel, and Mexico.

Viticulture and Winemaking

Viticulture

The red grapes in the Bordeaux vineyard are Merlot (62% by area), Cabernet Sauvignon (25%), Cabernet Franc (12%) and a small amount of Petit Verdot, Malbec and Carménère (1% in total). The white grapes are Sémillon (54% by area), Sauvignon blanc (36%), Muscadelle (7%) and a small amount of Ugni blanc, Colombard and Folle blanche (3% in total). Because of the generally humid Bordeaux climate, a variety of pests can cause a problem for the vigneron. In the past, this was counteracted by the widespread use of pesticides, although the use of natural methods has recently been gaining in popularity. The vines are generally trained in either single or double guyot. Hand-picking is preferred by most of the prestigious châteaux, but machine-harvesting is popular in other places.

Winemaking

Following harvest, the grapes are usually sorted and destemmed before crushing. Crushing was traditionally done by foot, but mechanical crushing is now almost universally used. Chaptalization is permitted, and fairly common-place. Fermentation then takes place, usually in temperature controlled stainless steel vats. Next the must is pressed and transferred to barriques (in most cases) for a period of ageing (commonly a year). The traditional Bordeaux barrique is an oak barrel with a capacity of 225 litres. At some point between pressing and bottling the wine will be blended. This is an integral part of the Bordeaux winemaking process, as scarcely any Bordeaux wines are varietals; wine from different grape varieties is mixed together, depending on the vintage conditions, so as to produce a wine in the château’s preferred style. In addition to mixing wine from different grape varieties, wine from different parts of the vineyard is often aged separately, and then blended into either the main or the second wine (or sold off wholesale) according to the judgment of the winemaker. The wine is then bottled and usually undergoes a further period of ageing before it is released for sale

The Bordeaux wine region is divided into subregions including Saint-Émilion, Pomerol, Médoc, and Graves. The 60 Bordeaux appellations and the wine styles they represent are usually categorized into six main families, four red based on the subregions and two white based on sweetness:

  • Red Bordeaux and Red Bordeaux Supérieur. Bordeaux winemakers may use the two regional appellations throughout the entire wine region, however approximately half of the Bordeaux vineyard is specifically designated under Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur AOCs. With the majority of châteaux located on the Right Bank in the Entre-Deux-Mers area, wines are typically Merlot-dominant, often blended with the other classic Bordeaux varieties. There are many small, family-run châteaux, as well as wines blended and sold by wine merchants under commercial brand names. The Bordeaux AOC wines tend to be fruity, with minimal influence of oak, and are produced in a style meant to be drunk young. Bordeaux Superieur AOC wines are produced in the same area, but must follow stricter controls, such as lower yields, and are often aged in oak. For the past 10 years, there has been strong, ongoing investment by the winemakers in both the vineyards and in the cellar, resulting in ever increasing quality. New reforms for the regional appellations were instituted in 2008 by the Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur Winemakers’ Association. In 2010, 55% of all Bordeaux wines sold in the world were from Bordeaux and Bordeaux Supérieur AOCs, with 67% sold in France and 33% exported (+9%), representing 14 bottles consumed per second.
  • Red Côtes de Bordeaux. Eight appellations are in the hilly outskirts of the region, and produce wines where the blend usually is dominated by Merlot. These wines tend to be intermediate between basic red Bordeaux and the more famous appellations of the left and right bank in both style and quality. However, since none of Bordeaux’s stellar names are situated in Côtes de Bordeaux, prices tend to be moderate. There is no official classification in Côtes de Bordeaux.In 2007, 14.7% of the region’s vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
  • Red Libourne, or “Right Bank” wines. Around the city of Libourne, 10 appellations produce wines dominated by Merlot with very little Cabernet Sauvignon, the two most famous being Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. These wines often have great fruit concentration, softer tannins and are long-lived. Saint-Émilion has an official classification.In 2007, 10.5% of the region’s vineyard surface was used for wines in this family
  • Red Graves and Médoc or “Left Bank” wines. North and south of the city of Bordeaux, which are the classic areas, produce wines dominated by Cabernet Sauvignon, but often with a significant portion of Merlot. These wines are concentrated, tannic, long-lived and most of them meant to be cellared before drinking. The five First Growths are situated here. There are official classifications for both Médoc and Graves. In 2007, 17.1% of the region’s vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
  • Dry white wines. Dry white wines are made throughout the region, using the regional appellation Bordeaux Blanc, often from 100% Sauvignon blanc or a blend dominated by Sauvignon blanc and Sémillon. The Bordeaux Blanc AOC is used for wines made in appellations that only allow red wines. Dry whites from Graves is the most well-known and the only subregion with a classification for dry white wines. The better versions tend to have a significant oak influence. The, In 2007, 7.8% of the region’s vineyard surface was used for wines in this family.
  • Sweet white wines. In several locations and appellations throughout the region, sweet white wine is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle grapes affected by noble rot. The best-known of these appellations is Sauternes, which also has an official classification, and where some of the world’s most famous sweet wines are produced. There are also appellations neighboring Sauternes, on both sides of the Garonne river, where similar wines are made. These include Loupiac, Cadillac, and Sainte Croix du Mont. The regional appellation for sweet white wines is Bordeaux Supérieur BlancIn 2007, 3.2% of the region’s vineyard surface was used for wines in this family

The vast majority of Bordeaux wine is red, with red wine production outnumbering white wine production six to one.

1). Rive Gauche

The wine regions of the Left bank of the Gironde river is bordered by large coniferous forest land that have a tempering effect on the maritime climate of the area.

The Médoc

The region spans the left bank of the Gironde from the mouth of the river to the city of Bordeaux and includes the four famous communes of St-Estephe, Pauillac, St. Julien and Margaux. It is about 60km north to south, and about 10km wide, with around 10,600 hectares under vines and a production of about 50 million litres per year. All the wine made here is red.

The Médoc appellations

Bas-Médoc

The northern or down-stream part was formerly known as the Bas-Médoc (lower Médoc), but is now simply (but confusingly) labeled as Médoc. This region is some 34 km long, by 10km wide, stretching from the mouth of the Gironde to St-Estèphe, and includes some 5800 hectares of vines, producing around 28.5 million litres of wine annually.Although the region does not have any classified growths, there are a number of Crus Bourgeois located in the soft clay soil of the Médoc. As Merlot favors the clay more than Cabernet Sauvignon, the wines from this region tend to resemble the right bank style of St.-Emilion more than other left bank wines.

Haut-Médoc

The southern or up-stream part is known as the Haut-Médoc (upper Médoc). This region is some 45km long, by 10km wide. The total area under vines is around 4800 hectares, producing 22 million litres of wine a year. 6 villages have their own appellations: Margaux, St-Julien, Pauillac, St-Estèphe, Listrac and Moulis. The remainder is classified simply as Haut-Médoc.The predominant grape planted here is Cabernet Sauvignon, although before 1800 it was Malbec.

St-Estèphe

Among the four famous Left Bank communes, St-Estèphe is the northernmost region with the jalle du Breuil dividing it from Pauillac to the south. The soil of St-Estèphe is a heavy composite of clay washed ashore from the Gironde. This soil type drains slowly and gives St-Estèphe estates an advantage during dry summers. The wines produce here tend to have more acidity than other red Bordeaux and with less perfume. While Cabernet Sauvignon is still the dominant grape, this sub-region has more planting of Merlot than any other area in the Haut-Médoc.

St-Estèphe has five classified estates and numerous Cru Bourgeois. The area is also home to several independent vignerons who produce wine as various co-operatives such as the Marquis de Saint-Estèphe and Canterayne.

Pauillac

Located south of St-Estèphe, the area around Pauillac has the highest elevation of the Médoc with the estates of Château Mouton Rothschild and Château Pontet-Canet sitting on a summit of 30m. Vineyards in Pauillac are not as fragmented as most of the Médoc, with entire slopes and plateaus belonging to a single estate.

The area of Pauillac contains three of the five first growth estates of Bordeaux. These are Château Lafite-Rothschild, Château Latour and Château Mouton Rothschild. It also includes 15 other classed growths

St-Julien

Situated on two plateaus between Pauillac and Margaux, the wine region of St-Julien has the smallest wine production of the four major regions in the Médoc. The region is divided into essentially two areas – the riverside estates around the village of St.Julien and the southern estates around the village of Beychevelle where the areas Cru Bourgeois are also grouped.The waters of the Gironde estuary have a warming influence on the climate which, coupled with the south-easterly exposure of most vineyards, helps to fully ripen the Cabernet Sauvignon vines in this area.

St-Julien has the highest proportion of classified estates of all the regions in Bordeaux.These eleven classed growths account for nearly 80 percent of the entire region’s wine production

Just to the west of St-Julien is the village of St-Laurent, with three further classed growths: Château La Tour Carnet, Château Belgrave and Château Camensac.

Central Médoc

This includes the area between St. Julien and Margaux. This area is home to many Crus Bourgeois. Within the Central Medoc there are the appellations Listrac-Médoc and Moulis-en-Médoc. Within Moulis, some wines estates near the village of Grand Poujeaux have added that name to their labels. The Listrac appellation is located on a limestone based plateau and produced highly tannic wines that require a bit of aging before they soften.

Margaux

The Margaux appellation encompasses the village of Margaux and the neighboring villages of Arsac, Labarde, Soussans and Cantenac. It is the most southerly of Médoc’s appellations. This region has the thinnest soil in the region with the highest proportion of gravel that allows the soil to drain very well. The wines from this area are very susceptible to weather effects during the growing season and harvest.

The area is home to more 21 classified growths, more than any other appellation, with numerous second and third growths as well as one first growth, Château Margaux.

Southern Médoc

The area just south of Margaux is called Southern Médoc with wines produced in this area using the Haut-Médoc designation. This area includes the classified growths of Château La Lagune in Ludon and Château Cantemerle in Macau.

Graves

This region is bordered on the north by the Garonne river and contain the sub regions of Pessac-Léognan, Sauternes and Barsac. It is known for its intensely gravelly soil. The soil is the result glaciers from the Ice Age which also left white quartz deposits that can still be found in the soil of the some of the top wine making estates.While Château Haut-Brion was included in the 1855 classification of the Médoc, the Graves appellation itself was classified in 1953 for its red wine producers. White wine were included in an updated 1959 classification.

The Graves is considered the birthplace of claret. In the Middle Ages, the wines that were first exported to England were produced in this area. Château Pape Clément, founded at the turn of the fourteenth century by the future Pope Clement V, was the first named chateaux in all of Bordeaux. In 1663, Samuel Pepys‘ mention of Château Haut-Brion was the first recorded mention of French Claret in London.

The Graves appellations

  • Graves AOC / Graves Supérieures AOC
    • Pessac-Léognan AOC
    • Cérons AOC
    • Sauternes AOC
      • Barsac AOC

Pessac-Léognan

This area of the Graves, located just south of the city of Bordeaux, is home to the first growth estate Château Haut-Brion, as well as all the 1953 classified Graves Growths, including Château La Mission Haut-Brion and Château Laville Haut-Brion. In addition to wine production, the area is known for its crops of pine trees and vineyards are often separated by rows of forest trees. The soil of Pessac-Léognan is composed of gravel terraces with sediments from different geological eras.

The area received appellation status in 1987 and produces both red and white wines.All of the estates named in the 1959 Graves classification are located in this appellation.Cabernet Sauvignon is the dominant grape variety, followed by Merlot and the white wine grapes Sauvignon blanc and Sémillon. The white wines of this area are barrel fermented and aged on their lees.

Sauternes and Barsac

Sauternes is a subregion of Graves known for its intensely sweet, white, dessert wines such as the Premier Cru Supérieur classified Château d’Yquem. Wines produced in the region of Barsac, such as Premiers Crus Château Climens and Château Coutet are allowed to be labeled either with the commune name or with Sauternes. The intense sweetness is the result of the grapes being affected by Botrytis cinerea, a fungus that is commonly known as noble rot. In the autumn, the Ciron river produces mist that descends upon the area and persists until after dawn. These conditions are conducive to the growth of the fungus which desiccates the grape and concentrates the sugars inside. The three main grapes of this area are Sémillon, Sauvignon blanc and Muscadelle

Production costs for this area’s botrytized wines are comparatively high. The evaporation and fungus produce low yields, five to six times less than in other Bordeaux regions. The grapes are normally harvested individually from the bunch with pickers going through the vineyards several times between September and November to ensure that the grapes are picked at their optimal points. The wine is then fermented in small oak barrels, further adding to the cost. Even with half bottles of the First Growths priced at several hundred dollars, these wines still have difficulties turning a profit and in the mid 20th century a string of bad vintages drove many growers in the region out of business.

2). Rive Droite

The Libournais

The area of Libournais encompassed much of what is referred to as the Right Bank. Named for its historical capital, Libourne, this area sits on the right bank of the Dordogne river and expands west past the convergence of the Isle river. Further west, after the Garonne and Dordogne rivers meet, the region of Bourg and Blaye is found the right bank of the Garonne. The expression Right Bank typically refers to wines from the Pomerol and St-Emilion areas of Libournais.

The Libournais appellations

·         Pomerol

·         The area of Pomerol was first cultivated by the Romans during their occupation of the area. Up until the early 20th century the area was known mostly for its white wine production. This area within Libournais doesn’t have a distinct city center with several villages spread across an area about the same size as St.-Julien. The area overall has gravel-based soil that is typical of Bordeaux, with western and southern sections having more sandy soil while the northern and eastern sections toward St.-Emilion have more clay composition.

·         The wines of Pomerol have a high composition of Merlot in their blends and are considered the gentlest and least tannic and acidic of Bordeaux wines. Cabernet Franc, known in this area as Bouchet is the second leading grape and helps to contribute to the dark, deep coloring that is typical of Pomerol wines. Due to the reduced tannins found in these wines, they can typically be drunk much younger than other red Bordeaux. The chateaus in the area are not classified, with the winemakers seemingly disinclined to devise one, although Château Pétrus is often unofficially grouped with the First Growths of Bordeaux.

·         Saint-Émilion 

Cheval_Blanc_etiquette_1974Cheval Blanc from 1974 ( My birth year ) !

·         Saint-Émilion

·         The wine region of Saint-Émilion centres around the commune of the same name. There are several villages around the region that share the Saint-Émilion name, such as Montagne-Saint-Émilion and St-Georges-Saint-Émilion, and are permitted to label their wines under the same name. The area is bordered to the west by Pomerol. Merlot is the dominant grape in this area, followed by Cabernet Franc. The climate and damper, cool soils of the area makes it difficult for Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to fully ripen and as such is less often used. The wines take a little longer to mature then the ones in Pomerol but are still able to drunk relatively young for a Bordeaux (4–8 years). In favorable vintages the wines have a good aging potential.

·         Saint-Émilion wines were first classified in 1878 and have been continuously revised with the most recent revision occurring in 1996. Chateaux are divided into two First Growth classification-Premiers Grands Crus Classés A, which currently includes Château Ausone and Château Cheval Blanc, and Premiers Grands Crus Classés B which currently includes 13 chateaux such as Château Angélus and Château Figeac. Below the Premiers crus are the Grands Crus Classés which currently includes 55 chateaux. Estates can apply for classification by passing two tasting panels.

Bourg and Blaye

North of Libournais, this area sits on the Right Bank of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers and is one of the oldest wine producing regions in Bordeaux, exporting wine long before the Médoc was even planted. Merlot is the main grape of the area followed by Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Malbec. The area around Bourg also has sizable Sauvignon blanc planting for sparkling wines and Ugni blanc for cognac.

The Blayais-Bourgeais appellations

Côtes-de-Bourg

Historians date the first vineyards from the 2nd century AD, when the Romans planted the first “Vitis Biturica”. The appellation has a range of gravel, alluvium, clay and limestone soils. The wine from Côtes-de-Bourg is mostly red made from a combination of Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec and Cabernet Franc grapes. There is only a small amount of white wine made from Ugni blanc and Colombard grapes. There are around 200 Chateaux producers in the appellation including Chateau Roc de Cambes, Chateau Nodoz, Chateau Fougas Maldoror, Chateau Falfas, Chateau Civrac, Chateau Tayac, Macay, Chateau Rousette, Chateau Haut Maco, Chateau Guiraud.

Entre-Deux-Mers

Entre-deux-mers (literally, between two seas) is a dry white wine made in Bordeaux. The appellation is one of the largest in the Bordeaux region and is situated between the Garonne and the Dordogne (which are actually considered inland seas). The area is responsible for three quarters of the red wine sold under the generic Bordeaux AOC or Bordeaux supérieur label

The Entre-Deux-Mers appellations

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Published on April 30, 2013 at 10:13  Leave a Comment  

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