Chapter 90.3.Glossary and General View on Restaurant & Kitchen Terms

Macaroni


Long, tube shape pasta

Macaroon


Kind of cookie made with egg white, sugar, coconut or ground almonds and then baked

Macchiato


Shot of espresso, ‘marked’ with a spoonful of hot, foamed milk

Mace


Less pungent than Nutmeg. See also Nutmeg

Madeira


Portuguese fortified wine from the island of Madeira, similar to sherry


Mahi-Mahi


Meaty sea creature from the Dolphin family

Malossol


Means ‘slightly salted’ in Russian. Commonly applied to caviar. It is also wrongly used to mean a higher grade of caviar, when any grade can be ‘Malossol’

Maltaise Sauce


Hollandaise sauce with blood oranges juice and zest

Mango


Kidney-shaped tropical fruit, originally from India. Has stringy, sweet flesh and a large central stone

Mangosteen


Asian fruit, no relation to the mango. Segmented cream-coloured flesh like a tangerine with a refreshingly tart flavour

Marchands De Vin


French sauce made from a reduction of red wine, cracked black pepper, chopped shallots, and glace de viande. At the last minute, the sauce is finished with parsley, butter, lemon juice and whisked hard.

Margarine


Butter substitute made of vegetable oil (sunflower, palm, soy, coconut, etc.) and/or animal fat, hydrogenated to solidify the product with the addition of water and/or milk, salt, and often vitamins

Marguery Sauce


Reduction of fish stock and white wine, blended with egg whites and butter. Served with fish, such as Sole

Marinade


Ingredients may vary, usually a mixture of vinegar, oil, wine, spices, salt used for meats and salads

Marinara


Pasta sauce used for seafood. Tomatoes, onion, garlic, anchovies, olives and parsley. In America, Marinara is considered plain tomato sauce

Marinate


To allow food to soak or steep in a marinade, therefore the flavouring may be absorbed

Marjoram


An herb used to flavour meat. Although it looks like Oregano, it is actually closely related to mint. The flavour is bitter-sweet, but very aromatic. Stands up well to strong meat flavours

Marzipan


Sugar syrup with almonds and flavours rolled and worked together for a fine paste. Used for decorating dessert, or making petit fours

Mascarpone


Swiss/Italian double or triple cream cheese, often used for desserts

Mashed Potatoes


Boiled potatoes with additional butter and milk and churned until creamy, smooth and consistent

Matjes


A reddish herring that has been skinned and filleted before being cured in a spiced sugar-vinegar brine

Matzo


Thin, brittle, unleavened bread traditionally eaten during Jewish Passover holiday.

Mayonnaise


Cold sauce based on egg-yolk, mustard, seasoning, and oil.

Meat Loaf


Ground meat (such as beef, turkey, lamb or pork) mixed with various seasonings (like onions, bell peppers, herbs, ketchup, and so on) and bound (see bind ) with eggs or bread-crumbs

Melba (Peach)


The name of a popular dessert invented by Auguste Escoffier. Poached peach halves are served with vanilla ice cream and topped with fresh raspberry sauce.

Melba toast


Very thin slices of white baguette loaf toasted in the oven until it is brown and crispy, traditional served with Caviar

Meringue


A very light biscuit made from stiffly whisked egg-white and sugar. Also can be used as topping for cakes and also used with Baked Alaska

Mesclun


Mix young salad .Typical from Nice area.

Meuniere


Usual preparation for fish (often Sole). The fish dipped in flour, sautéed in butter and served with butter sauce and parsley

Milanese


Italian style from Milan refers to tomato sauce with ham and truffles. In terms with risotto means additional saffron. Also found with veal piccata, and here means additional parmesan cheese mixed in the egg wash

Minestrone


Thick Italian vegetable soup. Most of the time, the soup is served with an addition of pasta, pesto and parmesan cheese

Mint


Fresh tasting herb whose leaves bring an up-lifting taste to any dish. The two major varieties are Spearmint and Peppermint

Mint Jelly


American condiment to go with lamb consisting of artificially flavoured mint jelly

Mint Sauce


Sauce prepared from finely diced mint leaves, clear vinegar and sugar to accompany lamb

Minute Steak


Sirloin steak, sliced very thinly in order to be cooked quickly

Mirepoix


Diced root vegetables and potatoes added to sauce bases and roasted together to enhance color and flavor.

Mirin


Japanese cooking wine, golden in colour, made from glutinous rice

Miso


Paste made from partially fermented Soya Beans, makes the Japanese soup of the same name when combined with Dashi and Mirin


Mizuna


Feathery Japanese salad leaf and a component of Mesclun

Mole


Pronounced ‘Mo-LAY,’ this red-brown Mexican sauce is an intriguing mix of ground pumpkin seeds, onions, garlic and different chilies blended smooth and sweetened with chocolate. Used as sauce for roast chicken

Monk fish


(Angler fish) A large, extremely ugly fish. Its flesh is low in fat and firm textured, and has a mild, sweet flavor. The only edible portion of this impressive fish is the tail, which is suitable for almost any method of cooking.

Monte Cristo


Ham and cheese sandwich, dipped in beaten eggs and pan-fried.

Morels


French wild mushroom that look like a sponge, related to the truffle, smoky, earthy flavour

Mornay


Béchamel sauce with an addition of Swiss cheese

Mousse


Very light preparation made from fruit puree or chocolate whipped cream, sometimes eggs or gelatine.

Mousseline


In terms of sauces, it is a derivative of Hollandaise with the addition of whipped cream. In general, mousseline is a mixture of egg white, heavy cream and meat, fish, poultry or vegetables, blended, seasoned and used as stuffing, filling for galantines or can be poached as quenelles.

Mousseline Potato


Mashed potato made with cream instead of milk

Mozzarella


Soft, elastic cow’s milk cheese, brilliant white, used in Italian cooking. In America, this cheese is made from buffalo milk. Mozzarella can also be found dry.


Muffins


Quick sweet breakfast or teatime breads, made with eggs and baked in small cup shaped molds. Made with white, corn or whole wheat flour, additional fruits are also possible (mostly used blueberry and raisins). English Muffin is yeast raised dough, for toasting.


Mughalay


Dish from Mongol, made from cauliflower and potatoes with spicy mustard sauce (cumin, curcuma, coriander, ginger) like a stew.

Mulligatawny


English-Indian chickens curry soup including blanched almonds and coconut milk.

Mulligatawny, which literally means pepper water, is an English interpretation of an Indian dish. It has seemingly limitless versions, but most have curry and a bit of chicken. We’ve added tart Granny Smith apples, plenty of spice and a touch of coconut milk.

RECIPE INGREDIENTS:

1 tablespoon canola oil

2 stalks celery diced

3 cloves garlic minced

1/2 teaspoon ground cumin

2 Granny Smith apples peeled and diced

1 1/2 teaspoons hot Madras curry powder.

1/2 teaspoon ground coriander.

1/2 teaspoon ground ginger .

6 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth.

1/2 cup white basmati rice.

12 ounces chicken breast tenders cut into bite-size pieces

1 cup lite coconut milk

1 tablespoon lemon juice

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon freshly ground pepper

3 tablespoons toasted sliced almonds

Tip: Hot Madras curry powder, located in the spice aisle of most supermarkets, adds a pleasant level of heat. Substitute regular curry powder for a milder soup.
To toast sliced almonds, place in a small dry skillet and cook over medium-low heat, stirring constantly, until fragrant and lightly browned, 2 to 4 minutes.

DIRECTIONS:

Heat oil in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add onion, celery and garlic; cook, stirring often, until softened, about 5 minutes. Add apples, curry powder, cumin, coriander and ginger and cook, stirring often, until the apples begin to soften, about 2 minutes. Add broth and rice; bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook, uncovered, for 12 minutes.

Add chicken, return to a simmer and cook until the chicken is cooked through and the rice is tender, 8 to 10 minutes more. Stir in coconut milk and return to a simmer. Remove from the heat; stir in lemon juice, salt and pepper. Garnish with almonds (if using).


Multigrain/All Grain


Bread made from multiple different grains milled to different consistencies

Mustard


Ground or powdered seeds of the mustard plant. Mixed with vinegar, sometimes with white wine and water for a paste. Can be spicy or mild, used as condiment.


Nantua Sauce


A Béchamel-based sauce with cream and crayfish butter added, served with seafood

Napoleon


Individual pastry made up of many layers of puff pastry and cream of chocolate mousseline, dusted with icing sugar

Nasi-Goreng


Indonesian fried rice. Nasi = rice, Goreng = fried, same condiments as Bami-Goreng.

Navy Beans


Small white legume commonly found in tinned baked beans

Nectarine


Peach with smooth skin and firmer flesh

New potatoes


Potatoes young cooked with the skin.

Newburg


Rich dish of shellfish in seafood stock, butter, cream, egg yolks and sherry or brandy. Also the sauce of the same ingredients used on other foods.

Nicoise


Salad made with tuna flakes, green beans, olives, tomato, anchovies and eggs.

Noisette Potato


Small balls of raw potatoes deep-fried or baked in butter. ‘Noisette’ because they are the size and shape of a hazel nut.

Nom Pla


Spicy, salty fermented fish sauce from

Normande Sauce


A fish stock based Velouté with cream, butter and egg yolks

Nougatine


Mixture of chopped nuts and caramel.

Nuoc Nam


Vietnamese fish sauce. See also Nam Pla

Nutmeg


One of two important spices produced by the tree Myristica Fragrans, the other being Mace, nutmeg has a ‘Christmas’ scent connotation

NY cheese cake


Heavy cream, cream cheese, eggs and egg yolks to add richness and a smooth consistency. Also called Jewish-style, it is baked in a special 13-15 cm (5- to 6-inch) tall spring form pan in many restaurants. Some recipes use cottage cheese and lemon for distinct texture and flavour or add chocolate or strawberry to the basic recipe. Typically without crust.

Oak leave


Small, light green with red tip, slightly crispy, light flavour

Oatmeal


Crushed, rolled and flattened oat boiled with milk or water, used as a breakfast hot cereal. Usually served with hot milk and brown sugar.

Okra


Lady fingers, edible vegetable used for soups (like Gumbo) and stews.

Olives


Stone fruit of the Olive tree found all around the Mediterranean, eaten raw, preserved or in salads and cooked dishes. Major varieties are either green or black and can be flavoured in oil or stuffed


Omelette


Whole beaten eggs fried in pan with additional ingredients and folded in half

Orange


Juicy citrus fruit of the same colour

Orange Blossom


The flower of the Orange tree, made into a water or syrup and used to flavour icing or pastries

Orange Pekoe


Tea made from large, fragrant leaves of the Pekinese region of China, producing a light tasting tea of golden colour


Orange Roughy


This New Zealand fish (also known as slime head) is fast becoming popular in the United States. Its low in fat has firm white flesh and a mild flavour. It can be poached, boiled, baked or fried

Oregano


Herb used fresh or dried in Mediterranean and Mexican cuisine. The Mexican variety has the more pungent scent of the two. Oregano gives pizza sauce it’s distinct flavour

Organic

Products raised or grown without coming into contact with artificial chemicals

Osetra


Osetra is a sub-species of the Sturgeon fish. It produces caviar of a golden/brownish colour. It is intensely nutty and a melt-in-the-mouth silky texture. Connoisseurs often prefer Osetra over the more expensive Beluga. Osetra comes in yellow tins

Osso-Bucco


Braised veal shank in red wine and vegetable sauce. Served with gremolata.

Over Easy/Medium/Well

Cooking temperature for fried eggs, implying that the egg should be turned half way through and finished to varying degrees

Oxtail


Marrow and meat from the bones in the tail of the Ox, nowadays more commonly the cow, used to thicken sauces and make Oxtail soup

Oyster Mushroom


Wild mushroom variety, the cap varies from purple-grey to tan brown, growing on rotting trees in a fan shape. They have a robust, smoky flavour

Oyster Sauce


Traditional Chinese sauce made from Oysters, brine and soy sauce cooked to a dark brown colour. Used in stir fries

Oysters


Hard shell mussels, growth in the depth of the oceans, mostly found in coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Only freshly served on ice in its own shell with lemon juice and other marinades. Delicacy and very valuable mineral source.

Paloise


Hollandaise sauce with fresh mint leaves.

Pampano


A member of the Jack family, this saltwater fish is found in waters off South Atlantic and Gulf states. Its succulent, fine-textured, moderately fat flesh has a mild, delicate flavor. Pompano may be prepared by almost any cooking method.

Pancakes


Batter of eggs, flour and milk pan-fried in little oil to make a fluffy sponge-like flat-cake. If served very thin, these are known as Crepes in France

Pancetta


Italian bacon cured with salt and spices but not smoked.

Panna Cotta


Italian dessert made by simmering together cream, milk and sugar, mixing this with gelatin, and letting it cool until set. An Italian phrase which literally means “cooked cream”,

Papaya


Tropical fruit with tiny, round, black seeds, yellow-orange flesh and yellow-green skin. Sweet-exotic taste

Paprika


Seasoning powder made by grinding sweet red pepper pods. The main spice in goulash.


Parfait


Semi-frozen ice cream with different flavours

Paris-Brest


Large ring-shaped cake of choux-pastry filled with praline flavoured cream and sprinkled with shredded almonds

Parisienne Potato


Larger than Noisette, circular, but prepared the same way

Parisienne Sauce


Cream cheese, oil, lemon juice, chervil and paprika blended together and used to top cold asparagus

Parmigiano Reggiano


(Parmesan) is a hard, crumbly cheese from Parma, Italy, with a tangy flavour used grated to flavour pasta sauces etc


Parsley


Common herb used in cooking and garnishing. The slightly peppery leaves come in Curly leaved and flat (or Italian) varieties

Parsnip


Creamy, white root vegetable, related to the radish, renowned for its sweet flesh

Passion fruit


Native to Brazil, these eggs sized fruit have wrinkled purple skins and bright yellow flesh. The black seeds can be quite gritty and are often discarded

Pate


Paste made of meat or liver, used for canapés and appetizers. Also known as ‘terrine’ if made more on the chunky side

Pate de Foie Gras


Duck or Goose Liver paste, prized as an appetizer

Peach


Or ‘Persian Apple,’ has a velvety skin and flesh that starts orange and ends red around the centre stone. The flavour is more robust than plums, but similar

Peach Melba


Vanilla ice cream with a half peach topped with raspberry coulis and whipped cream

Pear


Over 5000 varieties of pear are grown. The most common are raindrop shape, with green/red skin and cream coloured flesh

Pecorino Romano


Roman equivalent of Parmesan, but made with sheep’s milk

Penne


Medium sized, straight tubes cut in diagonal

Périgueux Sauce


A rich, brown sauce flavoured with Madeira and truffles, used widely in Perigordine cuisine

Pesto Sauce


Cold Italian sauce made of fresh basil, pine nuts, garlic, parmesan and olive oil, used to dress tomato and mozzarella salads and pasta


Petit Fours


Small cakes, tartlets, etc… With various colors and topping used for dessert time for coffee. Very decorative and stylish

Pheasant


Game bird with deep, musky flavour

Physalis


Small, orange gooseberry relative with a papery leaf attached at one end. Bitter-sweet taste with a piquant aftertaste. Also known as a ‘Cape Gooseberry’

Piccata


Slice of veal escalope, very thinly flattened. Mostly prepared a la Milanese style (egg wash with cheese)

Pilaf (Pilau)


Made by first browning the rice in fat with chopped onions, scented with cardamom pods then by baking it in oven with an addition of 1.5 of its own volume of stock. Traditionally used to express the wealth of nobles, therefore expensive ingredients can also be used like: raisins, gold powder

Pineapple


Bumpy, diamond-skinned fruit with sweet juice. Originally from S. America, now widely imported from Hawaii

Pinenut


Seed of the pine tree, found in the pine cone, with a light waxy texture, often used toasted to add texture to salads and baked items

Piquante Sauce


Brown sauce made with gherkins, shallots, white wine, parsley and various other herbs. Accompanies pork and beef dishes

Pistachio


Small green nuts housed in a two-part shell with a buttery texture

Pistou

French version of pesto, with basil, garlic and olive oil

Pita


Also called pocket bread, middle eastern flat bread made either with white or whole wheat flour

Pittsburgh style


Rare or very rare meat on the inside and charred on the outside. In Pittsburgh, this style is referred to as “black and blue”

Plantain


Edible tropical fruit, similar to bananas.

Plum


Stone fruit of many sub-species and colors

Plum Sauce


Also called ‘Duck Sauce,’ this rich sauce is made from stewed plums and apricots, sugar and salt and is used with oriental meats, such as Peking duck and spare ribs

Plum Tomato


Tomatoes in the shape of plums, favored in Italian cuisine

Polenta


Cooked cracked corn meal.

Pommes Frites


French fries

Pommes Parmentier


Potato cubes.

Pommes Rissolees


Cubed potatoes Sautéed with herbs.

Pont L’Eveque


Semi-soft cheese from Normandy with an assertively strong flavour and a creamy texture

Ponzu Sauce


Yuzu juice, soy sauce, sesame oil and chili used as a dipping sauce in Japanese cuisine for Sashimi dishes

Poppy Seed


Tiny black seeds of the poppy plant, used in bakery and salad dressings

Pork


Meat from a pig


Porridge


Scottish Breakfast cereal of Oatmeal cooked in hot milk and topped with brown sugar

Port


Full-bodied fortified wine from Oporto, Portugal, that comes in either ‘Ruby’ (deep red and velvety) or ‘Tawny’ (light red-brown with more tang)

Port Salut


Brittany, semi-soft cheese, mild, full-bodied flavour

Porterhouse


(American) exclusive cut of steak from both the short loin and the tenderloin together

Portobello Mushrooms


Very large mushrooms, dark brown, fully exposed gills and a dense, meaty texture. The stems are woody, making them inedible

Potato


Tuber vegetable grown under the ground, with over 500 varieties, originally from Central and South Americas

Potato Skins


Half a baked potato, cut length ways with a scoop removed to create a bowl, stuffed with e.g. bacon, grated cheese, sour cream

Poussin

Young chicken.

Praline


Delicate filling consisting of lightly roasted almonds or hazelnuts mixed with sugar then crushed with cocoa or cocoa butter

Praline


Finely chopped almonds mixed with chocolate.

Prawns


Large shrimps. If really large, we call it tiger or king prawns.

Primavera


Tomato-based sauce with zucchini, peas, asparagus, broccoli, garlic, mushroom, pine nuts, olives, parsley and olive oil

Profiteroles


A small sweet or savoury bun made from choux paste, filled with crème Patissiere and coated with hot chocolate sauce. Also served a la mode

Provolone


Hard cheese from Calabrese, Italy, slightly waxy with a mellow flavour

Pudding


Can have a lot of basis : rice, bread, semolina, tapioca, sponge cake, finger biscuits always with cream, egg, sugar and the flavor required

Puff Pastry


Delicate pastry made up of layers with a long preparation process. Used for cakes, tarts, pastries like croissant.

Pumpernickel


Multi grain sour dough dark bread with a slightly sour taste, from Germany

Pumpkin


Large squash-type fruit with fleshy orange meat

Puttanesca


Tomato-based pasta sauce with capers, anchovies, garlic, olives, red chili and olive oil

Quail


Smallest of the game birds from the Middle East

Quattro fromaggi


4 cheeses cream sauce

Quenelles


Small dumplings made out mousseline of meat or vegetable and flour and poached in stock. Seasoned according to the flavour required

Quesadillas


Flour tortillas filled with a savoury mixture (shredded cheese, meat, refried beans or a combination)

Quiche Lorraine


French short crust tart or egg cake filled with onions, bacon, beaten eggs and cream, baked in the oven.

Rabiola


Italian soft cream cheese.

Radicchio


Red leaf lettuce, quite crispy, bitter to the taste

Radish


Red top, white underside root vegetable with a crunchy fresh texture and a peppery taste

Ragu


Thick meat source made from minced beef, pancetta, tomatoes, carrots, celery, garlic, wine, onions, thicker and richer than a Bolognese

Raisin


Semi-dried grapes

Raisin Bread


White bread with raisins added at the dough stage

Raitha


Indian yoghurt dip, with shredded cucumber and scented with cardamom

Rambutan


Asian fruit from the lychees family with hairy skin

Ramontchi


Indian fruit with yellow juicy flesh under a red skin. Very sour taste

Ranch dressing


Sour cream, minced green onion, chives, garlic, lemon juice, salt and pepper

Ranchero salsa


Striking combination of jalapenos, serrano and habanera peppers that are blended together with onions and tomatoes to create a thick Mexican sauce

Raspberry


Intensely flavoured berries, deep crimson, grown on tall canes

Ratatouille


Provencal vegetable stew. Tomatoes, eggplants, zucchinis, bell peppers, onions, garlic and herbs.


Ravioli


Small pillows of pasta with various stuffing

Red Cabbage


Crimson coloured cabbage variety with a dark head, great for pickling

Red Onion


Or ‘Spanish Onion,’ is an onion with a sweeter taste than the regular white.

Red Snapper


The best known species of the Snapper family. So named because of its reddish-pink skin and the red eyes. The flesh is firm textured and contains very little fat. It grows to 35 pounds, but is most commonly marketed in the 2 to 8 pound range. Suitable for any cooking method.

Relish


Chopped and well seasoned vegetables with starch, vinegar and sugar. Similar to chutney, served mostly for burgers and hot dogs.

Remoulade


Cold sauce served with cold meat or fishes. Mayonnaise, mustard, gherkins, parsley, chives, anchovies and onions.

Rib Roast


(American) roasting joint, the much sort after top end is referred to as ‘Prime’

Rib-eye


(American) cut of steak from the centre of the rib

Rigatoni


Large tube pasta, similar to penne

Risotto


Traditionally made with Arborio or Viallone rice. Italian specialty made by stirring hot stock into a mixture of rice and onions.

Robusta


The less-flavorsome, more bitter of the two major coffee varieties, the other being Arabica

Rocky road ice cream


Composed of chocolate ice cream, nuts and marshmallows

Romaine


Lettuce species with long, green leaves, soft and refreshing taste. Used in Caesar salad.

Romana


Pasta sauce made from cream, spinach, pancetta, onion, garlic and sage

Romano



Shot of espresso with a twist of lemon peel

Romeso

Traditional Catalonia sauce of finely diced tomatoes, onions, garlic, red bell peppers, olive oil and almonds, served with grilled fish or chicken

Roquefort


French, blue cheese, slightly salty with a strong aftertaste

Rose Marie

Mayonnaise, ketchup, paprika, Tabasco, brandy, Worchester sauce, lemon juice. Traditional British dressing for seafood salads. Also called ‘European Cocktail sauce’

Rosehip


Berry-like fruit of the Rose plant dried and used to make a tisane. Very high vitamin C content, therefore it is good for fighting colds and flu

Rosemary


A native herb of the Mediterranean formed of a woody stalk and green-grey needles, giving a citrus-pine scent. Great flavour to add to poultry, game and lamb

Rouille


French for ‘Rust,’ a fiery sauce of chilies, garlic, fresh breadcrumbs and olive oil, ground to a paste and mixed into fish stock. Used as the base for Bouillabaisse

Roux


A mixture of flour and butter that after being slowly cooked over low heat is used to thicken soups and sauces.

Royal


Egg custard, cream mixed with egg-white, poached and cut into different shapes. Served with consommé

Ruben Sandwich


American classic with corned beef, sauerkraut and Swiss cheese covered with 1000 island dressing on rye bread

Rump


Steak cut from the hip and buttock of the cow

Russian Dressing

Thousand Island dressing with Caviar

Rustica

Tomato-based pasta sauce with roughly chopped onions, olives, garlic and bell peppers

Rutabaga


Or ‘Swede,’ is a root vegetable from the cabbage family, ranging from white to orange in colour

Rye


Grain that produces a heavier, darker flour, and the bread that is made from this

Sabayon


Light foaming dessert made from whisked egg-yolks with Marsala wine and sugar together on a gentle heat.

Sacher tart


Chocolate cake filled or spread with apricot jam, then covered with chocolate frosting.

Saffron


The stigma of the crocus flower, this spice is literally worth its weight in platinum. The dark red threads add a spicy, pungent yellow zest to French, Moroccan and Indian stews

Sage


Silver-green leaves of this soft Mediterranean herb give a bitter, musty flavour to pork and chicken dishes

Saint Germain


Always refers to green peas (soup, garnish etc…) and sometimes ham.

Salmon


Pink coloured fish that migrates annually between oceans and lakes, giving it firm, meaty flesh. Although farmed salmon is always readily available, wild caught salmon is always of a higher quality


Salsa

Mexican condiment for any kind of dishes. Chopped tomatoes, onions, lime juice, cilantro and seasonings.

Saltimbocca

Italian thin sliced veal escalope wrapped in Prosciutto and sage and gently braised in white wine.

Sambal-Oelek


Chili paste from Indonesia with sugar and salt. Ranging from very hot to volcanic

Sashimi


Japanese style of preparing fish, sliced raw into chunks with traditional accompaniments of Daikon and Ponzu

Savory


A soft-leaved herb with a pepper-pine scent used in cabbage, stews and bean dishes

Savoy Cabbage


Loose-leaved crinkled cabbage, dark green in colour and mild in flavour

Scallion


A tall thin onion, also known as ‘Spring Onion,’ with a pleasant, bitter onion served raw. Used in many different cuisines

Scallop


Shellfish related to the clam. Prized for is round, cream-coloured meat and delicate texture, has a mild taste

Schwartzbrot/Dark Bread

German bread, very heavy, made from roasted grains milled into flour giving the loaf a black coloration

Scrambled Egg


Eggs cooked over a low heat in a pan and whisked as they set to produce fluffy folds

Sea Bream


White flaky sea fish with a mild taste

Seabass


Generic term for white, flaky ocean fish, not necessarily in the Bass family, but may cover Grouper, Drum and Ocean trout species

Seared

Method of cooking just the outside surface of meat and fish through very brief contact with a very hot grill or skillet

Sesame Oil


Extract from the Sesame seed producing a very thick oil

Sesame Seed


Small, tan-coloured seeds with a sweet, nutty flavour used in Japanese cooking and bakery

Sevruga


Sevruga is a sub-species of the Sturgeon fish. It produces caviar of tiny eggs, meaning more eggs per kilo. The flavour is creamy and quite salty. Sevruga caviar comes in red tins


Shallots


A member of the onion family, widely preferred in French cooking for its subtler flavour

Sherry


Fortified wine, the best coming from the Jerez region of Spain

Shiitake Mushrooms


Japanese and Korean mushrooms with a musky smell and taste

Silverside

(British) cut of beef from the rump of the cow

Silverskin

Small onions in vinegar, also called ‘Pearl onions’

Singapore Noodles


Glass noodles with chicken and shrimp in spicy soy sauce, with mushrooms, garlic, ginger, scallions, chili, sesame oil and bok choi

Skordalia


Greek sauce or dip made from pureed baked potatoes, lemon juice, olive oil, vinegar, parsley, breadcrumbs and ground almonds, traditionally served with fish and chicken

Snow Peas/Sugar Snaps


Also called ‘Mange Tout’ in French, because you eat the peas and the pod. Bright green peas with a sweet flavour. Should be top and tailed before cooking

Sofrito


Spanish sauce made from sautéing annatto seeds in rendered pork fat. The seeds are removed and chopped onions, peppers, garlic and various herbs are added and reduced

Sorbet


Water, sugar and fruit churned whilst freezing to produce a soft, refreshing dessert

Soubise


A sauce made by adding puréed cooked onions to a Béchamel base. Sometimes cream is added for added richness

Soufflé


Light, savoury or sweet, mix of egg yolk, with fluffy whites folded in, than set and baked. Hot soufflés need to be served immediately and the trapped hot air that cause them to rise, escapes quickly, causing them to deflate


Sourdough


Bread made from dough that uses yeast in the earliest stage producing sour tasting bread. San Francisco is famous for this style of bread

Soy Sauce


A dark, salty liquid vital to most Asian cuisines, derived from fermented Soya beans and roasted barley that get boiled together and filtered

Spring Roll


Thin, phylo pastry-wrapped bundle filled with (usually Asian) ingredients such as Bean sprouts, Shredded pork


Steak Fries


Potato sticks cut extra large first blanched then deep-fried.

Stilton


A crumbly semi-hard cheese from England, with a harsh, pungent taste. Often mixed with port wine

Strawberry


Member of the rose family. Grown on small plants at ground level. Brilliant red fruits with seeds on the outside.

String Beans


Long, slender green beans with a buttery flavour

Sturgeon


Prehistoric fish native to the Caspian sea whose eggs (roe) are the foundation of caviar. Varieties include Beluga, Sevruga and Osetra

Sunny Side Up


Fried eggs cooked on from the bottom only

Supreme Sauce


Velouté base from chicken or veal stock and reduced with mushroom cooking liquid and heavy cream. This mix is reduced by half, then finished with butter and cream

Sushi


Japanese technique for the preparation of fish, arranged aesthetically to please the eye and simplify the palate. Only the highest-grade fish is used for sushi. Other ingredients include specially prepared rice, Seaweed sheets, egg, wasabi, soy sauce, ponzu

Swede

See ‘Rutabaga’

Swedish Pancakes

Crepe style pancake served with Lingonberries sauce. See also ‘Pancake’

Sweet Potato

Unrelated to the Yam as is commonly thought, the sweet potato has an inedible skin and soft, orange flesh with a sweet flavour

Sweetbread


Thymus and Pancreatic glands of young animals, particularly calf or lamb


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Published on October 9, 2013 at 11:06  Leave a Comment  

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