Chapter 90.2.Glossary and General View on Restaurant & Kitchen Terms

 

Fajitas


Mexican flour tortilla filled with meat, bell peppers, and onions, served with guacamole, sour cream, salad leaves and sometimes shredded cheese.

Farfalle


Bow tie shaped pasta.

Fava Bean


Also called ‘Broad Bean’ A large cousin of the Lima bean, with a thick skin and buttery taste

Fennel


A relative of celery. The bulbous base is treated as a vegetable, while the short stalks have a more mild anise flavour than celery

Fennel Seeds


Small, delicately anise-scented seed often ground and combined with pork dishes


Feta


Greek cheese made from sheep’s milk. Denmark is the world largest producer, feta keeps well in oil

Fettuccini


Flat, narrow strip of pasta.

Fig


Teardrop shaped fruit with purple/green skin and bright pink, seedy flesh. Great accompaniment for many types of cheese

Figaro Sauce

Hollandaise sauce with minced parsley and tomatoes

Filo or Phyllo

Tissue thin layers of pastry dough. Very similar to Strudel dough. Popular in Greek and Turkish cuisine

Fingerling potatoes


Potatoes finger shape with the skin on

Finnan Haddie


Smoked haddock fish, very intensive smell and taste. Usually served as a breakfast dish

Ingredients
One Whole Shallot
2 ounces Butter
3 tablespoons whole Flour
One Pound Finnan Haddie
1/2 cup Scotch Whiskey
2 cups fish stock (or fish boullion)
1 cup heavy cream
4 large potatoes, peeled and boiled

Preparation
Skin and chop the Finnan Haddie fillet. Saute the fillet and chopped shallot in the butter until the onions are transparent. Add flour and cook for two minutes over medium heat. Add scotch and cook an additional minute to release alcohol. Add heated fish stock and whisk until smooth. Bring to a boil and add heated cream. Boil again, lower heat, and cook slowly to desired consistency.
Serve over warmed, cooked potatoes.

Flan


Same base than caramel custard without caramel

Flank Steak


(American) cut of steak from along the outside of the rib cage

Fleur de Sel


Flower of Salt’ in French, flakes of sea-salt prized for their mellow, pure flavour

Florentine


Usually referring to egg or fish dishes that are presented on a bed of spinach and topped with Mornay sauce

Focaccia


Italian style soft, flat bread with olive oil and herbs

Foie Gras


French name of goose or duck liver meat, often served glazed with brandy or port, or as a terrine or made into a pâté-like spread and served with brioche

Fondantes Potato


Larger turned potatoes glazed in the oven with butter until golden brown

Fore-shank


Fore leg of (esp.) sheep, used for braising and stews

Frangipane


Pastry cream made from milk, sugar, flour, egg, butter and almond paste

French Coffee


Strong coffee, Cognac and whipped cream


French dressing


White wine vinegar, Vegetable Oil, Garlic, Mustard, Salt, Lemon Juice, Sugar

French Onion Soup


Very thick soup (consommé) based on beef stock, red or white wine and served with melted cheese crouton

French Toast


Raisin bread soaked in egg and milk mixture, fried and served with syrup and jellies.

Fried Eggs


Over: Whole eggs fried in a pan and turned once during cooking. Called ‘over easy’ if the yolk is still very runny, ‘over medium’ if already more cooked and ‘over well’ if the whole eggs are cooked thoroughly

Sunny Side Up: Whole eggs fried in pan. The eggs are not turned; therefore the yolk remains untouched by heat on the top, very yellow

Frisee salad


Small, curly & green leaves, crispy when cold. Light lettuce taste

Fritto-Misto


An Italian mixed fried platter, similar to the Japanese tempura platter. A mixture of vegetables, meat, and fish are dipped in a light batter and quickly deep fried to prevent a saturation of grease into the food

Frog legs


A delicacy made by the skinned leg of frogs

Frosting (Icing)


Mix some icing sugar with water and flavour; it’s used to coat small or large cake and biscuit

Fruit Salad


Mix of fruits peeled and cut and ready to eat, usually for breakfast. Fruit yoghurt may be used as a ‘dressing’

Fruits of the Forrest


Mix of berries, including Blackberries, Redcurrants, Raspberries and Strawberries. Forrest refers to Germany’s Black Forrest

Frutti di Mare


Tomato-based pasta sauce with white wine, clams, mussels, scallops, shrimp garlic and onion

Fudge sauce


Chocolate sauce with starch and additional butter, heavier than choc sauce

Fusilli


Spiral shaped pasta

Gado-Gado


Indonesian favorite consists of a mixture of raw and slightly cooked vegetables served with a spicy peanut sauce.

Galantine


Mousseline with gelatine added, slowly cooked in Bain Marie.

Galettes Potato


Duchess potatoes rolled into 3-5cm thick sausage shapes, then sliced into discs and sautéed. Similar to Rosti

Game


Wild, as opposed to reared, meat, e.g. fowl, rabbit, deer, salmon

Ganache


½ chocolate, ½ heavy cream heated and stirred together until the chocolate has melted. Used to coat the cakes

Garbanzo Bean


See Chick Pea

Garlic


One of the most widely used food stuffs, a pungent member of the onion family that grows a segmented bulb, grown and used all around the world

Gateau


Traditional French tart or cake. An also being used to designated a dish made of Layers

Gaufrette Potato


Waffle shaped potatoes and deep-fried

Gazpacho


Spanish cold soup made with cucumber, tomato, garlic, onion, red pepper, bread crumbs and olive oil, thickened with breadcrumbs. Served with garlic croutons

Gelatin


A colorless and tasteless substance extracted from the bones and cartilages of animals and also from certain algae (Agar-agar) Sold as a powder or as transparent leaves, dissolves in hot water then sets to a jelly consistency

Genevoise Sauce


An intense sauce of mirepoix and Espagnole with red wine and fish stock, reduced down then strained, after which, anchovy paste, butter and minced mushrooms are stirred in

Ghee


Indian clarified butter

Ginger


A major spice in Asian, Indian and Caribbean cuisine. The root of a tropical plant that grows in a knobby fashion. The skin, tan in colour, is not used, but the flesh, pale yellow gives a pungent, spicy aroma and taste

Gismondi


Creamy-tomato pasta sauce with vodka, smoked salmon, onion and garlic

Gjetost


Norwegian cheese from goat’s milk, semi-hard, with a sweet, caramel flavour and a mild after taste

Glace de Viande


Reduction of meat juices to a thick and syrupy consistency, used to add colour and flavour to sauces

Glass Noodles


Oriental style noodles made of rice flour, very thin and clear colour

Glazed


thin shiny coating, or the act of applying the coating

Gnocchi


A la Romaine made with semolina, egg yolk and cheese

A la Parisienne made with choux pastry and cheese

A la Piemontaise made with potato puree, egg and flour

Goose


Large game bird with yellow skin and lighter flavoured flesh than duck

Gorgonzola


Italian cow’s milkcheese, creamy and pungent that grows stronger in taste with ageing

Gouda


Dutch, semi-soft cheese with a nutty, mild flavour

Goulash


Hungarian soup based on potatoes, onion, bell peppers and beef cubes, flavoured with a lot of paprika

Granite


Frozen fluid scraped off for a granular texture

Grapefruit


Large citrus fruit, associated with Florida and California, popular as a breakfast starter

Grapes


Clustered berries, the source of wine, come in white (green) and red, only certain varieties of grape are sweet enough to eat raw

Gratin


A mix of milk, cream and cheese (usually Gruyere or similar) for baking vegetables in

Gratin Dauphinois


Potato dish of thick sliced potatoes covered in milk and cream and seasoned, then baked. When cooked half way, Gruyere cheese is added

Gravlax


Cured salmon in two parts of sugar and one part of rock salt with dill, juniper berries, lemon juice, orange zest and aquavit for 48 hours. Usually served with a mustard dill sauce

Gravy


Sauce made from the fat of roasted meats, sometimes with added tomato paste, thickened with flour. Served with meat, potatoes, rice, etc…

Green Goddess Dressing


Blended mix of egg yolks, Vegetable oil, spinach, watercress and salt and pepper

Green Tea


Tea made from un-fermented leaves, producing a green-tinted drink. Very popular in Asia. Varieties include Gunpowder, Jasmine and Tencha

Green Tomato


An species of tomato, unripened for a less sweet taste

Gremolata


Finely chopped lemon peel, garlic and parsley (used to top the Osso Bucco).

Grits


Cereal cooked in water. Served mostly with egg dishes or standalone as breakfast hot cereal

Grissini


Italian breadstick

Gruyere


Swiss hard cheese, used in Gratins, as it grates to fine quite easily

Guacamole


Mexican thick dip made out avocado with tomato, garlic, onion, lime juice, cilantro and seasonings. Served with tortilla chips

Guinea Fowl


Game bird popular in France

Guinness


Stout styled Ale from Dublin used to flavour stews, especially beef

Gumbo


Very thick and spicy soup of vegetables with okra (lady fingers). In general Creole style cooking, spicy, always related to Okra

Gunpowder Tea


A green tea from the Zhejiang province of China. It has a slight smoky flavour, but the name comes from the technique of rolling the leaves into tiny balls to preserve freshness, making them look like gunpowder

Halibut


Abundant in northern Pacific and Atlantic waters, this large member of the Flatfish family can weigh up to half a ton. The norm ranges between 50 and 100 pounds. Halibut meat is low fat, white, firm and mild flavored.

Hamachi


Japanese name for sushi grade Yellowtail

Hamburger


Plain ground beef meat seasoned with salt and pepper. Served grilled on a bun, often topped with lettuce, tomato and onion. With addition of a slice of cheese, we call it cheeseburger

Hard Sauce


A traditional accompaniment to plum pudding. Butter, sugar and brandy or whisky are whisked to a cream, and then set in the fridge in moulds to harden. These are then place on the hot dessert. Otherwise known as Brandy Butter

Haricot vert


French name for string beans

Harissa


Fiery-hot North African sauce is usually made with hot chilies, garlic, cumin, coriander, caraway and olive oil. Used to flavour soups and stews

Hash brown potatoes


Boiled and shredded potatoes seasoned with salt and pepper, packed together with oil and slowly grilled until it is brown

Hazelnut


A round tree-grown nut, about 1 ½ cm in diameter, used chopped, ground or whole in baking and cooking

Heart of Palm


Usually canned hearts of young growth palm trees. Used mostly for salads

Hibiscus


Rich, sweet-tasting flowers dried and used to make a tisane

Hock


Foreleg of pig, used for braising

Hoisin


A rich, dark, sweet barbecue sauce used in Chinese cooking for marinades and basting. Hoisin sauce is easily recognizable in Mu Shu pork and Peking duck. The sauce is made from soybean flour, chilies, red beans, and Chinese five spice

Hollandaise


Clarified butter, whisked egg yolks with lemon juice

Hom Ha


Variation of Nom Pla, using shrimp as the based. Distinct, aromatic sauce for condiment and cooking in Vietnamese cuisine. Known as ‘Bagoong’ in the Philippines

Honey Mustard Dressing


French dressing with honey and mustard added

Honeydew


Species of melon with pastel green flesh

Horseradish


White pungently spicy root, grated, used as a condiment for beef dishes

Hummus


Middle Eastern sauce made with mashed chick-peas, lemon juice, sesame oil and garlic

Ice Cream


Cream, milk, sugar and flavouring churned whilst freezing to produce a dessert

Iceberg lettuce


Green leaves, very crispy, very refreshing (contains a high amount of water). Usually cut into small pieces

Irish Coffee


Strong coffee with Irish whiskey (like Jameson’s’) brown sugar and whipped cream

Italian Dressing


Red wine vinegar, Balsamic vinegar, Vegetable oil, Olive oil, Fresh herbs, crushed garlic

Italian Parsley


Flat leaved variety of Parsley

Jaegermeister


German liqueur consisting in 56 botanicals macerated in spirit up to 6 weeks than maturated in oak casks.

Jamaican Coffee


Strong coffee with Jamaican rum (like Myers) and whipped cream


Jarlsberg


Norwegian, semi-hard cheese with a nutty flavour

Jasmine Tea


Chinese blended tea leaves flavoured by the inclusion of young Jasmine flower buds

John Dory


Found in European waters, this fish has an oval, flat body and a large, spiny head. The flesh is delicate and mild and can be cooked in a variety of ways including grilling, sautéing and poaching.

Julienne


Cutting size for vegetables. A thin Alumettes shape

Juniper Berries


Too sour to eat raw, these tart, blue-black berries are used to liven up stuffing and meat sauce. Goes well with pheasant

Jus


Natural juices of fried, roasted or broiled meats

Kahlua


Mexican coffee liqueur based on Tequila

Kebab


Small chunks of meat, fish or shellfish usually marinated before being threaded on a skewer and grilled over coals

Kecap Manis


Indonesian sauce made from soya beans, garlic, star anise and palm sugar. Can be used as a sauce, marinade or condiment

Kippered Herrings


Salty, bony fish smoke cured and served with lemon for breakfast

Kiwi


Furry, brown skin covers bright green flesh and a flavour similar to pineapple or strawberry

Kohlrabi


A mild, sweet turnip

Krupuk


Indonesian shrimp bread or crackers

Kumquat


Tiny, oval oranges with bitter-sweet flesh

Lamb


Young sheep meat

Lapsang Souchong


Tea from China’s Fukian province with a distinct smoky flavour, due to leaves being blended with charred oak chippings

Lardon


Bacon, finely diced and used to add salt and meaty flavour to salads and sauces

Latke


Jewish pancake of potato, egg and onion, pan fried and served hot

Leek


Member of the onion and garlic family and with a similar, but milder, taste, growing tall like a thick scallion

Lemon


Yellow citrus fruit

Lemon Curd


Sweet jelly made from the oil in lemon skin, used in cakes and pies

Lime


Green citrus fruit

Linzer torte


Austrian pastry. Sweet short bread dough flavoured with lemon and cinnamon, topped with raspberry jam and decorated with strips of pastry

Lobster


Highly-prized shellfish from the crustacean family. The State of Maine, USA produces very high-quality specimens. The claw meat is the most delicate and favorable of the lobster’s meats, whereas the tail provides creamy, luscious flesh

Lollo Rosso salad


Green leaves with a red curly tip, soft to the bite, not a bitter or sour lettuce, light taste

Lollo Verde salad


Same as rosso, but the leaves are green

Longan


Tropical plum-like fruit with pink or yellow skin and silvery flesh, similar in taste to a leeches

Louis Sauce


Seafood dressing made with mayonnaise, chili sauce, cream, scallions, green peppers lemon juice and seasonings

Lychees


Chinese fruit with a rough, red skin and juicy white flesh that has a unique, tropical taste, wrapped around a smooth stone

Lyonnaise Potato


Sautéed with sliced onions

Lyonnaise Sauce


Sauce made of sautéed onions, white wine and demi-glace

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Published on October 9, 2013 at 11:04  Leave a Comment  

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