Chapter 90.1 Glossary and General View on Restaurant & Kitchen Terms

This is one Chapter that anyone working in Restaurants or Kitchens could use .There are various terms usually used internationally , short descriptions , sauce names , dressings , dish styles and so on !

A-1 Sauce

Bottled condiment used for meat and poultry products, dark brown in colour, sour-spicy in taste, based on tomato

Agar-agar

Natural, vegetarian alternative to gelatine

Aioli

Forked potato, garlic and olive oil, similar to mayonnaise in consistency, served for fish, seafood and vegetables (fritti).

Ajowan

Similar to caraway seeds, but gives a brighter, less musky flavour

Al Aglio Olio e Pepperoncino

Traditional, simple pasta preparation of hot pasta tossed in olive oil, garlic and chili

A la Mode

Any dessert served with vanilla ice cream

Albert Sauce

Béchamel sauce with grated horseradish added. Traditionally served with roast beef

Alfredo

Pasta sauce of cream, Italian cheeses, butter, garlic and nutmeg

All Spice

The dried berry of the Myrtle tree gives the aroma of several other spices, hence the name. It is used in Caribbean ‘Jerk’ cuisine

Allemande

One of the four classic Mother sauces. Made from a base Velouté, thickened with egg yolk.

Alpha-Alpha

Salad with tiny leaves on long feet from the watercress family

Alumettes potato

Julienne shape sticks, deep fried. ‘Matchsticks’

Amaretto

Italian almond liqueur (Amaretto di Saronno)

Amatriciana

Spicy pasta sauce of plum tomatoes, onion, garlic, pancetta and chili

American Cheddar

Hard cheese, yellow/orange in colour, aged to different maturities e.g. Mild, sharp, extra sharp

Americano

Shot of espresso made long and thin with hot water

Amontillado

Spanish Sherry made from Palomino grape. Also a variety of consommé served with julienne leek and said sherry

Anchovy

Small, silver fish from the Mediterranean that are filleted, salt-cured and packed in tins with oil

Anise

Or Star Anise, because of its shape, gives the ‘aniseed’ scent and taste and is used from Europe to India.

Anna Potatoes

Thin round slices, seasoned and layered with clarified butter in a mould, the oven baked.

Annatto Seeds

From the tree of the same name, found in Spain, India and Latin America giving the musky scent and red-rust coloration to sauces, such as Sofrito.

Antipasto


Italian term for cold hors d’oeuvres. Usually small bits or cocktail snacks like Parma ham, grissini, pesto, marinated vegetables (bell peppers, artichoke, tomato, zucchini, and eggplant), seafood or fish.

Apple

Fruit of the apple tree of which there are over 3000 varieties

Apricot

Stone fruit with a pale orange flavour, used fresh or dried, particularly in North African cuisine. Relative of the plum.

Arabica

The more flavorsome and widely-grown of the two major coffee species, the other being Robusta. Rich, smooth flavour

Arborio Rice

Italian rice used especially for risotto

Arrabiata

Vegetarian version of the Amatriciana

Arrowroot

Thickening agent from the root of a Caribbean plant, ground to a tasteless white powder and used in much the same way as cornstarch

Artichoke

Bud of a plant closely related to the thistle, the tender heart and meaty bottom and edible, but requires much prep work (known as turning)

Asparagus


A member of the lily family, this vegetable is prized for its tender stalks. At its best, the stalks should be smooth, with a tightly-packed head that is just turning purple.

Aubergine


Also known as ‘Eggplant,’ this fruit is a member of the nightshade family, they have a mild, savoury flavour and a waxy texture. They range in colour from deep purple to white.


Aurore Sauce

Béchamel sauce with just enough tomato puree added to tint it pink.

Avocado


Also called ‘Alligator Pear,’ this fruit has a buttery texture and mild, nutty flavour, giving Guacamole it’s distinct green colour and mild, creamy taste.

Bacon


Meat from the loin of the pig, sliced thin into rashers. American style is to use narrow slices without the eye and cook until crisp. British style includes the eye and cooks until the fat starts to crisp.

Bagel


Doughnut shaped bread roll made from yeasty dough. If requested ‘Scoop out,’ the rings are emptied of the soft bread and only the crusts are served. Native to N. E. USA.

Baguette


French loaf or stick made from white bread


Bagna Cauda


Italian sauce from Piedmont made from olive oil, butter, anchovies and garlic, served warm as an appetizer for dipping raw vegetables in.

Baguta

Sauce served with Duck confit, made from poultry stock and pureed duck meat with crispy skin chopped in to it.

Bain-Marie

Cooking in the oven with a little amount of water to create humidity during the cooking process.

Baked Alaska


Very cold ice cream block on sponge pastry coated with soft meringue (beaten egg white with sugar) and quickly browned in the oven.


Baked Beans


Navy Beans canned in Tomato Sauce

Baked Fruit Tarts


Based on the tart tatin, ‘upside down’ baked.

Baklava


Several layers of a pastry (made with semolina flour, oil and eggs) stuffed with chopped grilled almonds, pistachios and walnuts mixed with sugar and then cut into triangles before baking. When they come out of the oven, syrup flavoured with rose water is poured over.

If anyone would like to order some Turkish sweets You could send a message to Mr. Razvan Nitulescu at razvan.nitulescu@gmail.com ( Pastry Chef and owner of “Dolce Family”- offer available for Bucharest only ,  for the moment.

Sarailie——————–16 RON kg

Baklava cu nuca————-16 RON kg

Baklava cu ciocolata——–16 RON kg

Cuschiozi——————-16 RON kg

Halep———————–16 RON kg

Sobiet———————-16 RON kg

Ghiuzel———————16 RON kg

Dolce Family Special——–16 RON kg

Hauci———————–16 RON kg

Balsamic


Vinegar made from the Trebbiano grape. Aging in wooden barrels, becoming dark in colour, in graduating sizes, over a period of years. Clear Balsamic is vinegar that has not been aged.

Balsamic Vinaigrette

Balsamic, vinegar, oil, mustard and seasonings

Bami-Goreng


Indonesian noodle dish. Bami = noodle, Goreng = fried. Egg noodles stir-fried with vegetables. Seasoned usually with Sambal Oelek, soy sauce and Kecap Manip (thick sweet soy-sauce).

Banana Fosters


Flambéed banana in caramel sauce flavoured with Crème de Banana and flamed with Rum.

Banana Split


Whole banana, halved, with vanilla, chocolate and strawberry ice cream topped with whipped cream

Barbecue (BBQ)

BBQ sauce is tomato sauce, sugar, olive oil, Tabasco, curry, salt,pepper and vinegar. Used it for grilled meats.

Barigoule


A classic Provencal dish of artichokes braised with celery, carrot, wine and vegetable stock.

Basic Cold Soup

Soup made from poached fruits or vegetables, blended with cream, yoghurt and other flavouring ingredients.

Basic cream soup

Any basic soup comprising of stock, flavouring ingredients thickened with cream or roux.

Basil


Mediterranean herb used fresh in salads and sauces. Also features in Thai cuisine. It has a unique and savoury flavour.

Basted Egg

A fried egg that is cooked covered in oil

Bavarian Cream

Dessert sauce from Germany made from custard, whipped cream and an additional flavouring, e.g. fruit, caramel, chocolate.

Bay


The tough, dark green leaves of the Bay tree are not edible, but are placed in stews, stock pots and casseroles to give a pungent, bitter flavour, then removed later.

Bean Sprouts


A relative of cress, bean sprouts are widely used in Asian cuisine. They can be eaten raw in salads, or cooked, like in Chow Mein. They have a fresh, clean taste.

Béarnaise Sauce

Reduction of vinegar, wine, tarragon, chervil, parsley and shallots finished with egg yolks and clarified butter usually served for the Chateaubriand together with Bordelaise Sauce.

Béchamel Sauce

One of the four Mother sauces. Basic French white sauce made by stirring milk into a roux. This can then be used to make other sauces, such as Cheese and Parsley

Beef

Meat from the cow…

Beefsteak Tomato


Largest variety of tomato, full of juice.

Beetroot


Round root vegetable with brilliant purple juice that stains everything it touches. Great roasted or pickled

Bel Paese


Italian semi-soft cheese with a mild, creamy taste, slightly fruity

Belle Helene

A dessert with poached pears, ice cream, and chocolate sauce. It is also a term used in French cookery as a name for a garnish to grilled meat dishes…also known as “Poires Belle Helene”.

Beluga


Beluga is a sub-species of the Sturgeon fish found in the Caspian Sea between Russia and Iran. It is famous for its roe, the highest quality, and most expensive type of caviar. The eggs are heavy and ripe and range from silver to black, with a buttery, sweet flavour. Beluga caviar comes in blue tins.


Bercy Sauce

Velouté made with fish stock and shallots, traditionally served with fish

Berny Potatoes

Duchesse potatoes with chopped truffles, shaped into balls, dipped in beaten egg and coated in chopped almonds then deep-fried.

Beurre Blanc

Reduction of white wine, vinegar and shallots whisked with cold chunks of butter.

Beurre Rouge

Same as above, but with red wine.

Bigarade Sauce

Orange sauce with an Espagnole base. Duck or chicken jus with orange juice, a little sugar and Cointreau. Should taste like bitter orange.

Bircher Muesli

Swiss cereal mixture of wheat flakes, nuts, raisins and sugar, served hot or cold with milk or yoghurt

Bisque

Thick and creamy soup, flavoured with white wine, brandy and cream

Black Lava Salt


Salt resembling flakes of charcoal, with a sharp flavour

Blackberry


Grown on the Bramble vine, deeper flavour than raspberries

Blackcurrants


Bitter-sweet currants with a deep purple colour

Blackened Meat

Similar to Cajun spiced meat products, with additional cracked black pepper and herbs

Blini


Small, thick pancakes made with a batter that contains buck wheat and wheat flour. Usually served with caviar or smoked fish.

Blintzes


Thin pancakes filled with cream cheese, chopped meat or fruit

Blue Cheese Dressing

Similar to French dressing with addition of blue cheese and cream

Blue Mountain


Coffee from Jamaica, grown on the mountain of the same name. Very famous and expensive.

Blueberries


Smooth-skinned berries from the Northeast United States. More purple than blue

Boar


Wild pig, particularly popular in the Black Forrest area of Germany

Bok Choy


Or ‘Chinese cabbage’ is of crunchy, white stalks and luscious green leaves. Can be eaten raw in salads, or cooked in Asian dishes.

Bolognese


Italian pasta sauce of ground meats, tomatoes, root vegetables, onions, garlic and mixed Italian herbs.

Bordelaise Sauce

Sauce Espagnole with red wine, tarragon, herbs, shallots, stock and bone marrow

Boston lettuce


Medium size leaves, tender, very delicate on taste

Bouillabaisse


Generic term for boiled fish and seafood broth or stew from the south-eastern part of France. In general, saffron and potatoes are always used for the preparation. Thickened by the potato starch. Served with garlic croutons, grated cheese and rouille

Boulangere Potato


Sliced potatoes sautéed with onions and baked in the oven with consommé.

Bouillon

Based stock made from poultry carcasses or meat bones or vegetables cooked in water, that is then used to make soups and stews.

Bouquet Garni

Mixture of herbs and vegetables tied together with string and used to flavour soups and sauces. The flavour and the colour is extracted, the Bouquet can be removed.

Bourguignonne

Cooking for instance a certain type of meat in burgundy red wine.

Boursin


Triple-cream, spreadable cheese from Normandy, often flavoured with pepper, garlic or herbs

Bran

High-fiber cereal used to make Bran Muffins

Brandade


Dish typical from the south of France and Portugal, composed of salted cod, potatoes garlic, olive oil, cream, breaded and cook in the oven

Brandy Butter

See ‘Hard Sauce’

Bread Sauce

Béchamel based sauce of breadcrumbs and finely diced onions and flavoured with cloves, traditionally served with game birds and turkey

Bresaola

BRESAOLA-«PUNTA-D’ANCA»
Italian air-dried beef

Brie


Soft cheese from Normandy with a mild, creamy taste

Brioche


Soft loaf or roll made from yeast dough enriched with butter and eggs. Served toasted to accompany pâté and parfait.

Brisket


Meat cut from the breast of a cow, good for slow, wet roasting

Brittle

Hard caramel flakes usually with candied nuts inside

Broccoli


Comes from the Italian for ‘cabbage sprout,’ is a relative of the Brussels sprout and the cauliflower. Tight florets of emerald green buds, best served steamed with melted butter

Broccoli Rabe

Young broccoli shoots, before the head has developed fully. Also known as ‘Purple sprouting,’ because of the tinge of purple colour on its dark green leaves.

Brochette

Meat grilled and served on a skewer, sometimes mixed with vegetables like tomato, mushroom, bell peppers, etc…

Broiler

13 week old chicken

Broiling

Cooking by direct heat on oven, charcoal, range or broiler

Broth

Refined stock, made by skimming the fat and straining

Brown rice


Unpolished rice containing more vitamins

Brunoise

Style of cutting the vegetables, very thin cubes

Bruschetta


Grilled slices of baguette brushed with olive oil and fresh garlic, topped with tomatoes, peppers etc

Brussels Sprouts


Baby cabbages that grow many heads to one stalk. Intense cabbage flavour.

Buccatini


Hollow, spaghetti-like pasta

Buffalo


Large, wild North American relative of the cow prized for its lean meat and milk, which is used to make American Mozzarella.

It is actually this one that eventually supplies the steaks …the other one , as far as I know is among the protected species .

Butter Scotch Sauce

Caramel sauce flavoured with scotch whisky

Button Mushrooms


Small, round mushrooms with the classic white cap and suede-brown underside.

Cacciatora

Italian for hunter. Food prepared with mushrooms, onions, tomatoes, various herbs and wine

Caesar Salad

Salad made from Romaine lettuce, Parmesan and Caesar dressing

Caesar Salad dressing

Olive oil, egg yolks, garlic, mustard, anchovies, lemon juice, red wine vinegar and grated Parmesan cheese

Café Amaretto

Strong coffee with Amaretto almond liqueur and Kahlua with whipped cream

Café Bueno

Strong coffee with brandy and Kahlua and whipped cream

Café Frangelico

Strong coffee with Frangelico hazelnut liqueur and whipped cream

Café Latte

Shot of espresso served in a tall glass, filled with steamed milk and topped with milk foam

Café Mocha

Shot of espresso with one shot of hot chocolate and topped with foamed milk

Calamari

The meat of a squid, usually only the tube or body is eaten. Commonly served cut into hoops and cooked in a sauce, or breaded and deep-fried

Californian Roll

Sushi style made of vegetables

Cambozola

German, double-cream cheese with a mild, aromatic taste. Also known as ‘Blue Brie’

Camembert

Delicate, full-flavoured soft cheese from the town of the same name, France, similar to Brie but with a milder flavour

Canadian bacon

Trimmed, pressed, smoked loin of pork

Canapé

Toasted bread or crackers spread with pastes, pates, meat or seafood pieces, caviar etc. and garnished for eye appeal. Served with cocktails

Cantaloupe

Species of melon with a salmon coloured flesh and tropical, juicy flesh

Capon

Rooster castrated before 8 weeks old

Cappuccino

Coffee drink comprising of espresso coffee, steamed milk and milk froth, topped with cocoa dust. Foam should be thick enough to cut with a spoon. Named for the Cappuccino monks, who wore white hoods with their brown robes

Capricciosa

Pasta sauce of tomatoes, ham, mushroom, artichokes, garlic, black olives and mozzarella

Capsicum

Latin name for the family of the bell pepper

Carambola

Or ‘Star fruit’ because of its cross-shape profile. Very little flavour, but great for garnishes

Caramel

Melted sugar that has been browned by heating

Caraway

The seed from a member of the Parsley family, it has a smoky, aniseed taste and goes well in stews and casseroles

Carbonara

Pasta sauce made with cream, bacon, egg yolk, parsley and parmesan

Cardamom

Oval shaped seeds of a tropical plant related to ginger. A quite unique, pungent scent that gives Pilau rice it’s distinct flavour

Carpaccio

Thin slices of raw beef or tuna seared and served paper-thin. Named from an Italian painter who used to use a lot of red in its paintings. By extension, all preparations based on the same process or aspect

Carrot

Orange root vegetable

Cassata

Italian ice-bomb cake made with different ice-cream flavors and candied fruits

Casserole

French name of a dish for food preparation, in which the dish is prepared and served

Cassoulet

Traditional French dish made with white beans and various meats in a thick stew (pork, duck, sausage)

Cauliflower

Tight florets on this head-growing vegetable formed in green, purple but most commonly white. Often baked in a cheese sauce to form ‘Cauliflower cheese’

Cavetappi

Twisted tube pasta

Caviar

The eggs (roe) of the Sturgeon fish from the Caspian sea. Largest producers are Russia and Iran. Classical garnish for caviar is lemon wedge, Melba toast, chopped onion, egg yolk, egg white and sour cream. An alternative tradition is to consume with Blinis and a shot of Vodka

Cayenne Pepper

Dry, rust coloured powder from chilies originally grown in Cayenne, Indonesia

Celeriac

Root of relative of the celery, the flavour is somewhere between celery and parsley. Used raw in salads and chopped into stews and soups

Celery

Tightly ribbed stalks with a bitter, anise flavour eaten raw as a crudités or diced into stews and sauces, such as Bolognese

Celestine

Shredded herb pancake, used for garnish in consommé

Cepes

Wild mushroom. Porcini in Italian.

Ceviche

From Peru. Raw fish or seafood marinated in lemon and lime juice and served raw with chopped onion and tomatoes.

Chang Mai

Thai dish of spicy egg noodle with minced pork and chicken, onion, garlic, chili paste, fish sauce and deep-fried shallots

Chamomile

Dried, daisy-like flowers used to make a tisane, renowned for its soothing properties

Chantilly

Whipped cream flavoured with vanilla essence.

Chanterelles

Trumpet-shaped wild mushroom found in tan to yellow colors with a nutty flavour and a chewy texture

Charcoal

Carbonized wood chipping made by cold smoking and used as a fuel for BBQs

Chard (Swiss)

It’s a root whose leaves are eaten as a vegetable; the taste is similar to spinach.

Chasseur Sauce

From the French, ‘Hunter’ An Espagnole sauce with shallots and mushrooms added, served with game birds

Chateau Potato

Turned potatoes (long oval shape) blanched and sautéed in butter.

Chateaubriand

Thick piece of the head of the beef fillet (double slice)

Checca

Pasta sauce made from tomatoes, basil, oregano and mozzarella

Cheddar

Hard cheese from Somerset, England, the best being crumbly in texture and tangy in taste

Cheese

Coagulated milk, cream, skimmed milk or a mixture of these, drained in a mould. Has a wide range of flavours and textures, when served as a course, should always be at room temperature

Cheese Sauce

Béchamel sauce with grated cheese stirred in. Cheeses such as Gruyere, Cheddar, Roquefort work well

Cherries Jubilee

Flambéed cherries in cherry sauce flavoured with Herring Cherry Liqueur and flamed with Kirshwasser.

Cherry

Stone fruit with a sugary flesh, about the size of a grape.

Cherry Tomato

Tomatoes the size of a cherry, often harvested and prepared still on the vine

Chervil

Relative herb of Parsley, with tight curled leaves and a mild anise flavour

Chevre

Goat’ in French, but generically applied to French cheeses made from goat’s milk. They can range from soft and creamy to hard, most having a tart flavour

Chicken

Most common of the poultry birds

Chickpeas

Hazelnut sized irregular shaped legume with a paste-like texture and mild nutty flavour, used widely in Indian, Middle Eastern and North African cuisine

Chilled Bisque

Same as bisque, but in general flavoured with fruits and served cold

Chips

Very thinly sliced and deep-fried. Can be served hot or cold. Also known as Crisps

Chives

Fragrant herb, relative of the onion with a mild onion flavour. The long, green tubular stems are used as garnishes

Chocolate

Confectionary made from the fat extract from the Cacao bean, ranging from sickly sweet, to bitter, depending on the quantity of cream/sugar blended with the Cacao

Chocolate sauce

Melted chocolate with butter

Chop

Small cut from the rib, on the bone, particularly pork, lamb and veal

Chop Suey

Chinese ‘mixed pieces’) is an American-Chinese dish consisting of meats (often chicken, beef, shrimp or pork), cooked quickly with vegetables such as bean sprouts, cabbage, and celery and bound in a starch-thickened sauce

Chorizo

Highly seasoned, coarsely ground pork sausage with garlic, chili and other spices from Spain.

Choron Sauce

Sauce Béarnaise tinted pink with tomatoes. Named for the Chef who created it

Choux Paste

Paste made from milk, butter, flour, salt and egg

Chowder

Thick, chunky soup, mostly clam based.

Manhattan clam chowder is based on tomatoes.

New-England or Boston is based on potatoes and cream.

By extension, any thick, rich, chunky soup, like corn chowder, etc.

Chuck

(American) cut of beef from the neck, cut down into steaks and roasts. Good for stewing

Churro

Spanish and Mexican specialty consisting in a sweet dough spiral deep-fried and sprinkled with sugar. ‘Chi-chi’ in French

Chutney

Relish, made with chopped fruits or vegetables, mostly with sugar and vinegar. The taste is sweet and spicy-sour

Cilantro

Fresh leaves of the coriander

Cinnamon

Dried bark of the Laurel tree curled into sticks and either used whole to impart flavour to sauces or ground to a powder and included as an ingredient

Cioppino broth

Broth based with chicken stock white wine, bacon, clam juice, garlic, tomatoes, chili flakes, and saffron

Cloves

The dried, unopened buds of the Syzygium Aromaticum, from the laurel tree, lending a pungent scent to stocks and sauces, such as bread sauce

Cobbler

Dessert consisting of a fruit filling poured into a large baking dish over a batter that rises through when baking. The batter forms as a dumpling within the cobbler as well as a crust for the top

Cocktail sauce

American: Ketchup, Tabasco and grated horseradish

European: Mayonnaise, ketchup, Cognac, Tabasco, Worcestershire sauce, lemon juice a little bit of paprika (see also Rose Marie) Should have the color of a baby shrimp

Coconut

Fruit of a palm tree, comprising of a rock hard, brown shell, brilliant white flesh and refreshing ‘milk’

Coconut Milk

Coconut Cream

White liquid blended from the juice of a coconut and the flesh, to different consistencies. Used a lot in Thai and Vietnamese cooking

Cod fish

A popular saltwater fish comes from the Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Cod’s mild flavoured meat is white, lean and firm. Can be baked, poached, braised, broiled and fried. Salt-cured cod is important to Portuguese cuisine

Coffee

Originally from the hills of Ethiopia. Beans of the coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta bushes, shelled and roasted then ground to make a hot, stimulating beverage

Cointreau

French orange flavoured liqueur

Colbert Sauce

Named after one of King Louis XIV’s ministers, combines meat glaze, tarragon, lemon juice, butter, wine and shallots. Usually served with game and grilled meats

Cold Cuts

Selection of hams, salamis and cheeses eaten for breakfast

Compote

Stewed fruits, like prunes, pears, peaches, figs, apricots, etc…

Con Panna

Shot of espresso topped with a spoonful of cold whipped cream

Confit

Salted meat cooked in his fat. Slowly cooked and caramelized ingredients in wine, like onion confit

Consommé

It’s a broth clarified with minced meat, vegetables, egg white and sometimes tomato sauce for colour

Coppa

A cured ham taken from the neck of the pig

Coq au vin

A rooster stew flavoured with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions, garnished with mashed potato

Cordon Bleu

Traditional French cooking school, generally meat (veal) stuffed with ham and cheese, breaded and deep-fried

Coriander

Also known as Cilantro in Italy, or Chinese Parsley, is a widely used herb in Asian and Mexican cuisine. The leaves provide a pungent, citric flavour whilst the seeds are ground to make a powder, used in stir fries and curry powder. Also, the root can be boiled to make an aromatic stock for Asian soups and sauces

Corn Beef Hash

Breakfast side dish or corned beef sautéed into boiled potatoes

Cornish Game Hen

4-6 week old, wild chicken from Cornwall, England

Cornstarch

White, finely ground flower from corn kernels, used as a thickening agent

Cottage cheese

Soft, white fresh un-ripened cheese curd

Coulis

Puree of fruits with syrup, or vegetable liquid puree

Couscous

North African starch dish made out of cooked millet or hard wheat semolina. Served with most North African cuisine, and often flavoured with lemon juice, mint leaves and raisins, like in the dish Taboulé

Crab

Crustacean with over 4000 species worldwide. The white meat from the legs has a mild sea flavour, whilst the brown meat has a musty flavour. Crab meat is used to make potato cakes, used in sauces and also seafood salads

Cranberry Sauce

Cold sauce, served as condiment for poultry and game dishes

Cream cheese

Made from whole milk and cream, a bit sour taste, white, very creamy and smooth, ‘Philadelphia’ being the most famous brand

Cream of Tartar

The residue left behind after the fermentation of grape juice into wine, it is used as a major component of Baking Powder

Cream of wheat

Dry, finely ground wheat cooked in milk. Breakfast hot cereal, served mostly with brown sugar and cinnamon

Crème Anglaise

Vanilla and egg yolk custard served hot or cold over pastries and desserts

Crème Brulée

Bruleé’ means ‘burned’ in French. Double (heavy) cream egg custard with caramelized brown sugar on top. Flavoured with fresh vanilla sticks

Crème Fraîche

A matured, thickened cream with a tart, savoury taste. Used to add texture to soups and sauces without adding sweetness, or served on the side of desserts that would be too sickly with regular cream

Crème Patisserie

Pastry cream used for fillings and as a base of other dessert, like soufflé

Crepes

Thin pancake. Crepe batter is made out milk, flour, sugar, salt , eggs (sometimes alcohol)

Crepes Suzette

French dessert made with thin pancakes cooked in orange flavoured caramel sauce (Grand Marnier) and flamed with Cognac

Cress

Cress, native European plant. Found in combination with mustard & eaten at the seeding stage. Used raw in salads

Croissant

Moon or crescent shaped French roll, made with puff pastry and seasonings

Croquette Potato

Duchess potato balled, breaded and deep-fried

Crostini

(little toast in Italian), small, thin slice of toasted bread usually brushed with olive oil

Crouton

Diced or sliced bread fried and toasted in the oven. Served mostly with soups and salads

Crudités

Raw vegetables served as a hors -d’oeuvres with a dip

Crumble

Dish of British origin containing stewed fruit topped with a crumbly mixture of fat (usually butter), flour, and sugar. The crumble is baked in an oven until the topping is crisp

Cumberland Sauce

Cold sauce from England. Based on red and black currants, orange and lemon juice/zest and fortified wine (Port, Madeira) Served with cooked ham, poultry, pate and deep fried Camembert cheese.

Cumin

The seed of a member of the parsley family, used whole or ground, a very important spice to the Indian cuisine, giving a bitter edge to curry powder

Cure

Preserving meat and fish by drying, salting or smoking

Curry

Sautéed or baked dish featuring meat, fish or vegetables, centered on the flavour of curry powder, the central spice mix in Indian cuisine

Curry Paste

Curry powder worked to a thick paste by stirring in Ghee in small quantities at a time

Curry powder

Indian spice mix containing Fenugreek, Cumin, Coriander, Cardamom, Chili powder, Fennel Seed, Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, red and black Peppercorns, Saffron, Tamarind and Turmeric, the last giving it the distinct yellow-dye colour

Custard cream

Egg-yolks, sugar, milk and vanilla essence

Daikon

Japanese radish with a mild flavour, served grated into strings with Sushi and Sashimi

Danablue (Danish Blue)

A strong, semi-hard cheese from Denmark, with a blue vein running through and a strong, piquant flavour

Danish

Pastry made from puff pastry, topped with Jam, dried fruit and icing

Darjeeling

Black tea from the foothills of the Himalayas with a grape-resin flavour, considered India’s finest

Dashi

Japanese soup stock made with dried bonito tuna flakes

Dauphine Potato

2/3 Duchess potato, 1/3 choux paste folded together and spooned and deep fried

Demi tasse

Small cup, used for espresso

Demi-Glace

Bonded jus made with roasted bones, mirepoix, tomato puree, red wine, brown stock, brown roux and spices. Cooked for several hours, then skimmed, stirred and strained through a cheese cloth

Diavolo

Meaning ‘Devil’ in Italian, Espagnole sauce fired up with hot chilies

Dill

Feathery herb with a mild anise flavour, used especially for fish and cream dishes

Diplomat Sauce

Velouté sauce enriched with cream, brandy, lobster butter and truffles. Traditionally served with shellfish

Doppio

Double’, especially for Espresso

Double Consommé

Same as a Consommé, only difference is that after clarifying the broth we use it again to make a more flavorful and rich soup. We could say, we use for the same soup a double amount of meat & vegetable

Doughnut

Pastry made by frying batter in a ring shape, then rolling in sugar. Whole doughnuts are filled with Jam, usually raspberry

Dragonfruit

Striking looking fruit, with bright pink skin, scaled like a dragon and white flesh, speckled with tiny black seeds. The flavour is like a mild kiwi

Duchess Potatoes

Mashed potatoes with egg yolks piped into a form, then re-baked

Dulche de leche ice cream.

combination of caramel and sweet cream, swirled with ribbons of golden caramel

Durian

Fruit from southeast Asia, banned by some airlines because of the pungent smell of the ripe skin. The flesh is the texture of avocado and the flavour is somewhere between peach and papaya

Duxelles

Mixture of finely chopped mushrooms, shallots and herbs slowly cooked in butter until it forms a thick paste

Earl Grey

Chinese tea leaves, medium fried and blended with bergamot oil, giving a strong perfume

Éclairs

Same as profiterolles but with a long shape.

Edam

Dutch, waxy cheese with a mild and salty flavour

Eggs Benedict

Poached eggs in Hollandaise on grilled Canadian bacon and a toasted muffin

Elbow

Short, curved tube shape pasta

Emmental

Swiss cheese with holes, and a nutty sweet flavour

Empanadas

A small savoury pie from Spain and South America. Fillings may be made of meat, seafood, or vegetables, seasoned in many ways. Those from around Spain are flavoured with peppers, onions, and tomatoes. In South America, they have a sweet/sour undertone from the addition of raisins and green olives. Crusts may be made from bread dough or flaky dough like pate brisee and puff pastry

Emulsion

Mixture of two liquids that would normally separate, oil and water, being the obvious example. Droplets at a time of one liquid are added to the other, whilst being whisked intensely. Also, egg yolks contain lecithin, a natural emulsifier that aids this process. Emulsion sauces include Mayonnaise and Hollandaise

En croute

Topped with pastry

Enchiladas

Dough pockets filled with minced meat, onions, spices and vegetables. South America.

Endive (Chicory) salad

Colour may vary like white, yellow or red & white. Small straight leaves, crispy, a bit bitter, good also when cooked

English Beef Cut

Beef sliced very thin, as opposed to American cut (thick sliced)

English Breakfast

Blend of Sri Lanka and Indian tea leaves, producing a black, balanced tea

English Muffin

Soft round muffin made from yeast dough that is baked on a grill

Enoki Mushrooms

Asian mushrooms that grow in clumps with spaghetti-like stems, with a mild flavour

Escalope

Thin slice of meat without bone, skin or fat

Escargots

Edible snails traditionally prepared in strong garlic butter, with garlic baguette on the side

Escarole salad

Green, long leaves, soft and refreshing taste

Escoffier

Name of the most famous French Chef, first name Augustus

Escoffier sauce

Creamy mushroom and bacon sauce with the addition of tarragon, vinegar and wine.

Espagnole

One of the four classic Mother sauces. Basic brown sauce, made from the reduction of vegetable stock and tomatoes. From this base other sauces such as Diavolo and Bolognese

Espresso

Coffee drink. 1 fl oz of very strong coffee made under pressure to produce its own caramel-coloured foam

Espresso Ristretto

Espresso shot cut short early so that the coffee is denser and more aromatic. From the Italian, meaning, ‘restrained’

Photos to be added soon !

more to come …once I get them together…





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Published on October 9, 2013 at 11:01  Comments (2)  

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2 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. Your Bresaola photo has been stolen from my website localfoodheroes.co.uk and I hold the copyright for it. Please remove it immediately from your site.

    • Hello there !
      It’s been removed.
      Best Regards ,

      Adria


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