Recipes Chapter II

This is the second Recipes chapter and I’m trying to display here some of the most famous dishes / items to be found all over the World : Hotels , International Cuisine Restaurants , Cruise Ships , resorts and so on ….ENJOY!

Prawn Cocktail or Shrimp Cocktail


Is a seafood dish mainly served as entree consisting of cooked, peeled, and chilled shrimp or prawns, served on a bed of crisp lettuce, topped with cocktail sauce (made from a mixture of ketchup and mayonnaise,cognac and some other spices (ketchup and horseradish in the United States)), usually served as an hors d’œuvre.

According to a “Hairy Bikers” episode broadcast on BBC2 on 2nd February 2010 it was originally invented by Fanny Cradock and popularised by Berni Inns in the 1970s.

Prawn cocktail is also a flavour of potato chips (crisps).

Strawberry Cold Soup

Soup for dessert? You bet! Two signs of spring, rhubarb and strawberries, match wonderfully in this delightful dessert. A scoop of mascarpone cheese adds a luxurious texture to the dish.

Vichyssoise Soup


Most consider vichyssoise to be a classic cold French soup although some believe it was invented in New York City at the Ritz Carlton. Regardless, this potato and leek soup remains a true classic with simply wonderful flavor.

Louis Diat, a chef at the Ritz-Carlton in New York City, is most often credited with its invention.In 1950, Diat told New Yorker magazine:

In the summer of 1917, when I had been at the Ritz seven years, I reflected upon the potato-and-leek soup of my childhood, which my mother and grandmother used to make. I recalled how, during the summer, my older brother and I used to cool it off by pouring in cold milk, and how delicious it was. I resolved to make something of the sort for the patrons of the Ritz.

The same article explains that the soup was first titled crème vichyssoise glacée, then, after the restaurant’s menu changed from French to English in 1930, cream vichyssoise glacée. Diat named it after Vichy, a town not far from his home town of Montmarault, France.

Conversely, French chef Jules Gouffé created a recipe for a hot potato and leek soup, publishing a version in Royal Cookery (1869); Gouffé’s claim appears nebulous, with many sources citing his story as having come from “culinary historians”,”others”,and “other food fighters”.

Lamb Chops


Ingredients

  • 2 large garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1 tablespoon fresh rosemary leaves
  • 1 teaspoon fresh thyme leaves
  • Pinch cayenne pepper
  • Coarse sea salt
  • 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
  • 6 lamb chops, about 3/4-inch thick

Directions

In a food processor fitted with a metal blade add the garlic, rosemary, thyme, cayenne, and salt. Pulse until combined. Pour in olive oil and pulse into a paste. Rub the paste on both sides of the lamb chops and let them marinate for at least 1 hour in the refrigerator. Remove from refrigerator and allow the chops to come to room temperature; it will take about 20 minutes.

This is Lamb Chops with Curry Sauce

Heat a grill pan over high heat until almost smoking, add the chops and sear for about 2 minutes. Flip the chops over and cook for another 3 minutes for medium-rare and 3 1/2 minutes for medium. I would appreciate lamb Chops – Rose – at its BEST !

SPAGHETTI AGLIO OLIO


Aglio e Olio is a traditional Italian pasta dish. Identifying it with countrified home cooking, cucina rustica, for it is made without seasonal or store-bought ingredients, many attribute its origin to the poverty-stricken and traditionally isolated region of Abruzzo; however it is quite popular elsewhere in the country. In keeping with its casalinga quality, it is traditionally made with fettuccine, which, unlike fancy pasta shapes, could also be prepared from scratch in the kitchen. The robust fragrance of the olive oil, the crisp freshness of the garlic, the quality of the grated cheese and the pasta itself are all essential in a dish where nothing can be masked. Actually, it is traditionally made with spaghetti. Were it not, it would be called fettuccine aglio, olio e peperoncino.

The sauce consists entirely of minced or pressed garlic lightly sauteed in olive oil, plus hot pepper flakes (dried red chili peppers). Finely chopped parsley is added as a garnish. Antonio Pinto, a Neapolitan cook, recommends to add a couple of fresh tomatoes to the boiling oil after frying the garlic. When made alla milanese, bread crumbs are added to the sauteed garlic and permitted to color slightly, to give the sauce a light liaison.

Ossobuco


Ossobuco, when loosely translated from Italian, means hollowed bone, a reference to the large piece of marrow in the center of the veal shank bone.It derives from the phrase osso buco (literally hole bone) in the Western Lombard dialect because the bone marrow is part of the appeal of the dish.

This dish is a Milanese specialty of veal shanks cooked in meat broth, flavored with white wine and vegetables.Slowly braised, this relatively tough, yet flavorful cut of meat becomes meltingly tender, and the connective tissues and marrow dissolve into the sauce, making it rich and creamy.

The shank is a relatively cheap cut of veal which is readily available in most good supermarkets and butcher shops. Better portions include meaty hind-shanks cut from the top of the thigh with a high proportion of meat to bone. Each piece should be about five inches across and one to one-and-a-half inches thick.


This dish probably had its origins in a Milanese farmhouse during the late nineteenth century and most likely did not originally include tomatoes, a New World vegetable.Ossobuco first became popular in the osterie of Milan, which were neighborhood restaurants of Italy’s large cities. These catered to the neighborhood’s local residents but rarely if ever to tourists and foreigners.

Traditional ossobuco (which had no tomatoes) was prepared with cinnamon, allspice, bay leaf and gremolata and today is called ossobuco in bianco (ossobuco in white sauce). The modern version has, by and large, replaced the older one. This new version includes tomatoes and the holy trinity of Italian cooking: carrot, celery and onion, flavored with herbs but no gremolata (although hybrid versions exist which include both tomato and gremolata).

While risotto alla milanese perfectly complements ossobuco in bianco, for which is was intended, the moister, bolder modern-day version goes better either with polenta or mashed potatoes.

STEAK TARTARE


Steak Tartare is a meat dish made from finely chopped or minced raw beef or horse meat in Switzerland. Tartare can also be made by thinly slicing a high grade of meat such as strip steak, marinating it in wine or other spirits, spicing it to taste, and then chilling it. It is often served with onions, capers and seasonings (the latter typically incorporating fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce), sometimes with a raw egg, and often on rye bread.

History


A popular legend is that the dish is named after the nomadic Tatar people of the Central Asian steppes, who ate raw meat as they rode their horses because they did not have time to stop and cook. A variation of this story is that the meat was kept under the horse’s saddles to be tenderized by the day’s riding mixed along with spices in order to get a better taste .

In fact, steak tartare got its name from tartar sauce. It was first served in French restaurants early in the 20th century. What is now generally known as “steak tartare” was then called steak à l’Americaine. Steak tartare was a variation on that dish; the 1921 edition of Escoffier’s Le Guide Culinaire defines it as steak à l’Americaine made without egg yolk, served with tartar sauce on the side.

Over time, the distinction between steak à l’Americaine and its variant vanished. The 1938 edition of Larousse Gastronomique describes steak tartare as raw ground beef served with a raw egg yolk, without any mention of tartar sauce.

Health concerns


Health concerns have reduced the popularity of this meat dish in many parts of the world because of the danger of contamination by bacteria and parasites. It is not recommended for people having a weakened immune system or suffer from a chronic illness because there is a risk of E-coli and Salmonella.

Tartare sauce (or Tartar sauce; US spelling) is a thick white sauce made from mayonnaise and finely chopped pickled cucumber, capers, onions (or chives), and fresh parsley. Chopped hard-boiled eggs, olives, and horseradish are sometimes added, and dijon mustard is often used as an emulsifier. It is frequently used to season fried seafood dishes. It can also be made by mixing commercially produced relish and mayonnaise. Vinegar can be added for a sharper flavor. The sauce is typically of a rough consistency.

INGREDIENTS :


  • 2 teaspoons brined capers, drained and rinsed
  • 3 teaspoons Dijon mustard
  • 2 large egg yolks
  • 10 ounces USDA prime beef tenderloin, cut into small dice, covered, and refrigerated
  • 2 tablespoons finely chopped red onion
  • 2 tablespoons finely chopped Italian parsley leaves
  • 2 tablespoons finely choppen garlic
  • 4 teaspoons olive oil
  • 3 dashes hot sauce (such as Tabasco)
  • 3 medium oil-packed anchovy fillets (optional, adjust salt if needed), rinsed and minced
  • 4 dashes Worcestershire sauce
  • 3/4 teaspoon crushed chile flakes (optional)
  • Salt
  • Fresh ground pepper
  • ½ glass cognac
  • 2/3 glass red wine
  • a bit of red wine vinegar ( some others would prefer balsamico )
  • DO NOT BE AFRAID to add a bit more of the above as the meat will absorb all of it .

Foie Gras

Now , this is an extensive detailed “story” about Foie Gras as it is still after thousands of years one of the Highlights in the French and International Cuisine.


Foie gras (pronounced /fwɑːˈɡrɑː/ in English; French for “fat liver”) is a food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. This fattening is typically achieved through gavage (force-feeding) corn, according to French law, though outside of France it is occasionally produced using natural feeding. Pâté de foie gras was formerly known as “Strasbourg pie” in English due to that city being a major producer of this food product.

Foie gras is a popular and well-known delicacy in French cuisine. Its flavor is described as rich, buttery, and delicate, unlike that of a regular duck or goose liver. Foie gras is sold whole, or is prepared into mousse, parfait, or pâté (the lowest quality), and may also be served as an accompaniment to another food item, such as steak. French law states that “Foie gras belongs to the protected cultural and gastronomical heritage of France.” Another European cuisine employs fattened goose liver almost to the extent as in France; in Hungary, libamáj (lit. ‘goose liver’) is produced, as in France, both at the small farm and larger commercial levels, and is consumed both plain and in cooking by all levels of society. As with French foie gras, tinned libamáj is exported and can be purchased around Europe and North America.

The technique of gavage dates as far back as 2500 BC, when the ancient Egyptians began keeping birds for food and deliberately fattened the birds through force-feeding. Today, France is by far the largest producer and consumer of foie gras, though it is produced and consumed worldwide, particularly in other European nations, the United States, and the People’s Republic of China.

Gavage-based foie gras production is controversial due to the force feeding procedure used, which many view as cruel and inhumane treatment. A number of countries and other jurisdictions have laws against force feeding or the sale of foie gras.

Ancient times


As early as 2500 BC, the ancient Egyptians learned that many birds could be fattened through forced overfeeding and began this practice. Whether they particularly sought the fattened livers of migratory birds as a delicacy remains undetermined. In the necropolis of Saqqara, in the tomb of Mereruka, an important royal official, there is a bas relief scene wherein workers grasp geese around the necks in order to push food down their throats. At the side stand tables piled with more food pellets, and a flask for moistening the feed before giving it to the geese.]

The practice of goose fattening spread from Egypt to the Mediterranean.The earliest reference to fattened geese is from the 5th century BC Greek poet Cratinus, who wrote of geese-fatteners, yet Egypt maintained its reputation as the source for fattened geese. When the Spartan king Agesilaus visited Egypt in 361 BC, he was greeted with fattened geese and calves, the riches of Egyptian farmers.

It was not until the Roman period, however, that foie gras is mentioned as a distinct food, which the Romans named iecur ficatum; iecur means liver and ficatum derives from ficus, meaning fig in Latin. The emperor Elagabalus fed his dogs on foie gras during the four years of his chaotic reign. Pliny the Elder (1st century AD) credits his contemporary, Roman gastronome Marcus Gavius Apicius, with feeding dried figs to geese in order to enlarge their livers:

Hence, the term iecur ficatum, fig-stuffed liver; feeding figs to enlarge a goose’s liver may derive from Hellenistic Alexandria, since much of Roman luxury cuisine is of Greek inspiration. Ficatum was closely associated with animal liver and it became the root word for “liver” in each of these languages: foie in French, hígado in Spanish, fígado in Portuguese, fegato in Italian and ficat in Romanian, all meaning “liver”; this etymology has been explained in different manners.

Postclassical Europe


After the fall of the Roman empire, goose liver temporarily vanished from European cuisine. Some claim that Gallic farmers preserved the foie gras tradition until the rest of Europe rediscovered it centuries later, but the medieval French peasant’s food animals were mainly pig and sheep. Others claim that the tradition was preserved by the Jews, who learned the method of enlarging a goose’s liver during the Roman colonisation of Judea or earlier from Egyptians.The Jews carried this culinary knowledge as they migrated farther north and west to Europe.

The Judaic dietary law, Kashrut, forbade lard as a cooking medium, and butter, too, was proscribed as an alternative since Kashrut also prohibited mixing meat and dairy products. Jewish cuisine used olive oil in the Mediterranean, and sesame oil in Babylonia, but neither cooking medium was easily available in Western and Central Europe, so poultry fat (known in Yiddish as schmaltz), which could be abundantly produced by overfeeding geese, was substituted in their stead.The delicate taste of the goose’s liver was soon appreciated; Hans Wilhelm Kirchhof of Kassel wrote in 1562 that the Jews raise fat geese and particularly love their livers. Some Rabbis were concerned that eating forcibly overfed geese violated Jewish food restrictions. The chasam sofer, Rabbi Moses Sofer, contended that it is not a forbidden food (treyf) as none of its limbs are damaged. This matter remained a debated topic in Jewish dietary law until the Jewish taste for goose liver declined in the 19th century. Another kashrut matter, still a problem today, is that even properly slaughtered and inspected meat must be drained of blood before being considered fit to eat. Usually, salting achieves that; however, as liver is regarded as “(almost) wholly blood”, broiling is the only way of kashering. Properly broiling a foie gras while preserving its delicate taste is an arduous endeavour few engage in seriously. Even so, there are restaurants in Israel that offer grilled goose foie gras.

Gentile gastronomes began appreciating fattened goose liver, which they could buy in the local Jewish ghetto of their cities. In 1570, Bartolomeo Scappi, chef de cuisine to Pope Pius V, published his cookbook Opera, wherein he describes that “the liver of [a] domestic goose raised by the Jews is of extreme size and weighs [between] two and three pounds.”In 1581, Marx Rumpolt of Mainz, chef to several German nobles, published the massive cookbook Ein New Kochbuch, describing that the Jews of Bohemia produced livers weighing more than three pounds; he lists recipes for it—including one for goose liver mousse.János Keszei, chef to the court of Michael Apafi, the prince of Transylvania, included foie gras recipes in his 1680 cookbook A New Book About Cooking, instructing cooks to “envelop the goose liver in a calf’s thin skin, bake it and prepare [a] green or [a] brown sauce to accompany it. I used goose liver fattened by Bohemian Jews, its weight was more than three pounds. You may also prepare a mush of it.”

Production methods


The physiological basis of foie gras production is migratory birds‘ capacity for weight gain, particularly in the liver, in preparation for migration. Toulouse geese and Mulard ducks are the most commonly used breeds for foie gras. Mulards are a cross breed between a male Muscovy Duck and a female Pekin duck, and are considered to be about 35% of all ducks consumed in the US. Typical foie gras production involves force-feeding birds more food than they would eat in the wild, and much more than they would voluntarily eat domestically. The feed, usually corn boiled with fat (to facilitate ingestion), deposits large amounts of fat in the liver, thereby producing the buttery consistency sought by the gastronome

Physiology and preparation


Geese and ducks are omnivorous, and, like many birds, have expansive throats allowing them to store large amounts of food, either whole or pre-digested, in the crop, an enlarged portion of the esophagus, while awaiting digestion in the stomach, similar to python feeding. In the wild this dilation allows them to swallow large foodstuffs, such as a whole fish, for a later, long digestion. Wild geese may consume 300 grams of protein and another 800 grams of grasses per day. Farmed geese allowed to graze on carrots adapt to eat 100 grams of protein, but may consume up to 2500 grams of the carrots per day. A wild duck may double its weight in the autumn, storing fat throughout much of its body and especially on the liver, in preparation for winter migration. Force feeding produces a liver that is six to ten times its ordinary size. Storage of fat in the liver produces steatosis of the liver cells.

The geese or ducks used in foie gras production are usually kept in a building on straw for the first four weeks, then kept outside for some weeks, feeding on grasses. This phase of the preparation is designed to take advantage of the natural dilation capacity of the esophagus.The birds are then brought inside for gradually longer periods while introduced to a high starch diet. The next feeding phase, which the French call gavage or finition d’engraissement, or “completion of fattening”, involves forced daily ingestion of controlled amounts of feed for 12 to 15 days with ducks and for 15 to 18 days with geese. During this phase ducks are usually fed twice daily while geese are fed up to 4 times daily. In order to facilitate handling of ducks during gavage, these birds are typically housed in individual cages or small group pens during this phase.

Fattening


Traditional gavage feeding process, which takes 2-3 seconds to complete.

In modern production, the bird is typically fed a controlled amount of feed, depending on the stage of the fattening process, its weight, and the amount of feed it last ingested.At the start of production, a bird might be fed a dry weight of 250 grams (9 oz) of food per day, and up to 1,000 grams (35 oz) (in dry weight) by the end of the process. The actual amount of food force-fed is much greater, since the birds are fed a mash whose composition is about 53% dry and 47% liquid (by weight).

The feed is administered using a funnel fitted with a long tube (20–30 cm long), which forces the feed into the animal’s esophagus; if an auger is used, the feeding takes about 45 to 60 seconds. Modern systems usually use a tube fed by a pneumatic pump; with such a system the operation time per duck takes about 2 to 3 seconds. During feeding, efforts are made to avoid damaging the bird’s esophagus, which could cause injury or death, although researchers have found evidence of inflammation of the walls of the proventriculus after the first session of force-feeding. Several studies have also demonstrated that mortality rates can be significantly elevated during the gavage period.

Alternative production

Fattened liver can be produced by alternative methods without gavage, and this is referred to either as “fatty goose liver” or as foie gras (outside France), though it does not conform to the French legal definition, and there is debate about the quality of the liver produced. This method involves timing the slaughter to coincide with the winter migration, when livers are naturally fattened. This has only recently been produced commercially, and is a very small fraction of the market.

While force feeding is required to meet the French legal definition of “foie gras”, producers outside of France do not always force feed birds in order to produce fattened livers that they consider to be foie gras, instead allowing them to eat freely, termed ad libitum. Interest in alternative production methods has grown recently due to ethical concerns in gavage-based foie gras production. Such livers are alternatively termed fatty goose liver, ethical foie gras, or humane foie gras, though these latter terms are also used for gavage-based foie gras production that is more concerned with the animal’s welfare (using rubber hoses rather than steel pipes for feeding). Others have expressed skepticism at these claims of humane treatment,as earlier attempts to produce fattened livers without gavage have not produced satisfactory results.

More radical approaches have been studied. A duck or goose with a ventromedian hypothalamic (VMH) lesion will not tend to feel satiated after eating, and will therefore eat more than an unaffected animal. By producing such lesions surgically, it is possible to increase the animal’s food consumption, when permitted to eat ad libitum, by a factor of more than two.But this is insufficient to produce high-quality foie gras,[citation needed] and due to that and other practical concerns, the method has not been used commerciallyPreparations

Generally, French preparations of foie gras are over low heat, as fat melts faster from the traditional goose foie gras than the duck foie gras produced in most other parts of the world. American and other New World preparations, typically employing duck foie gras, have more recipes and dish preparations for serving foie gras hot, rather than cool or cold.

In Hungary, goose foie gras traditionally is fried in goose fat, which is then poured over the foie gras and left to cool; it also is eaten warm, after being fried or roasted, with some chefs smoking the foie gras over a cherry wood fire.

In other parts of the world foie gras is served in exotic dishes such as foie gras sushi rolls, in various forms of pasta or alongside steak tartare or atop a steak as a garnish.

Cold preparations

Traditional low-heat cooking methods result in terrines, pâtés, parfaits, foams and mousses of foie gras, often flavored with truffle, mushrooms or brandy such as cognac or armagnac. These slow-cooked forms of foie gras are cooled and served at or below room temperature.In a very traditional form of terrine, au torchon (“in a towel”), a whole lobe of foie is molded, wrapped in a towel and slow-cooked in a bain-marie. For added flavor (from the Maillard reaction), the liver may be seared briefly over a fire of grape vine clippings (sarments) before slow-cooking in a bain-marie; afterwards, it is pressed served cold, in slices.Raw foie gras is also cured in salt (“cru au sel“), served slightly chilled.Given its high fat content, foie gras can be made into a savory ice cream, typically crusted with coarse salt.

Some strange stuff…

Clamato


Clamato (a portmanteau of “clam” and “tomato”) is a trademark of the Mott’s company which denotes a drink made primarily of reconstituted tomato juice concentrate. It is flavored with spices and clam broth. It is also referred to colloquially as “clamato juice.” Clamato was produced in its current form beginning in 1966 by the Duffy-Mott company in Hamlin, New York, by two employees who wanted to create a Manhattan clam chowder style cocktail by combining tomato juice and clam broth with spices. They also named the new cocktail Mott’s Clamato and secured the trademark for the new brand. According to Mott’s, the Clamato Caesar is one of the top selling cocktails across Canada. The brand was owned by Cadbury-Schweppes after the company bought Mott’s in 1982. It is now owned by the Dr Pepper Snapple Group after the business was spun off of Cadbury-Schweppes in 2008 .

Cocktail base


The Caesar has become so popular that Mott’s now markets multiple varieties of pre-mixed Caesars in 341 ml (12-ounce) bottles, in addition to non-alcoholic Caesar blends such as “extra spicy” and “all-dressed” (including Worcestershire, tabasco and horseradish) as a more convenient mixer. With over 250 million sold each year, the Caesar is Canada’s most popular cocktail and of Canadian households that drink Caesars, 82% use Mott’s Clamato as the base. Clamato is also popular as mixer for mass-market American and Canadian beer. The resulting drink is known in Canada and parts of the northern US as a Red Eye. In early 2008, Budweiser released Budweiser Chelada and Bud Light Chelada—blends of Clamato and Budweiser or Bud Light—for national sale.

Beefamato

Beefamato is a similar beverage made from beef broth and tomato juice with a touch of Worcestershire sauce. It is a popular ingredient in many cocktails, such as ‘Gramma’s Bloody Mary.

Published on May 20, 2010 at 11:30  Comments (5)  

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5 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. That was kind of inspiring! Totally sudden. Now I’m sure what I’m heading to complete tomorrow :)

    • Thank You ! I’ll post more recipes soon !

  2. Hi Adrian,
    I just found your web page today while looking for a lamb chop recipe. Nicely done! However, I have to wonder if perhaps the recipe listed for the top photograph is incomplete-as it appears to have some sort of sauce on it. I would very much appreciate it if you could clarify this for me. Thank you!

    • Dear Jeannie,

      The french usually use the gravy , sort of reduced while cooking , they add some more wine ( burgundy ) and it makes a wonderful sauce !
      Personally I do the same , saving the “juice” the lamb leaves in the tray , I add some red wine ( as per above ) and sometimes depending on the feeling , I would add some other spices , like rosemary , just to revigorate the sauce …or , just simply pour red wine and get it on the plate !

      Bon Apetit !

      P.S. I did not add what people should do saucewise….some prefer mint jelly with lamb , or pure and simple bouquetiere of vegetables…well…too many choices !

      Please receive My best Regards ,

      Adrian

  3. Right here is the perfect webpage for everyone who wishes to find out about this topic.
    You understand a whole lot its almost hard to argue with you (not that I
    actually would want to…HaHa). You definitely put a new spin on a topic that has been written about for ages.
    Excellent stuff, just great!


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